The rol e o f educatio n ha s bee n examine d i n som e recen t studie s o n eco - nomic growth. 1 However , th e evidenc e cite d ha s bee n almos t exclusivel y from advance d countries . Th e precis e relationshi p betwee n educatio n an d productivity ha s not been analysed much in the context of under-develope d countries. Thi s chapter i s a modest attemp t t o examin e thi s question i n th e light o f availabl e recen t evidence , particularl y fro m India n agriculture .