This chapter explores the ways in which an examination of the issues that face education in London exemplifies many of the issues prevalent in education generally in England as well as issues that are common to education in many other urban centres throughout the world. To contextualize such an exploration, the chapter starts with two brief descriptive accounts of London. The first is a socio-economic account of the city and the second a history of its education. Emerging from these two accounts will be the major themes that currently dominate educational debate and practice in London, and the discussion of these takes up the rest of the chapter. The aim of this approach is to illuminate both education in its contemporary setting and some of the more general themes in urban education that are discussed in the first section of this book.