In both of Pamuk’s Ottoman novels, archival manuscripts become the basis for innovation in the modern Turkish novel. Similar to the function of the Ottoman archive in The White Castle, the Ottoman artists’ workshop and miniaturists’ studios in My Name is Red become the setting for the development of Pamuk’s recurring theme of textual production and authorship. Such intertextual and intertemporal spaces enable Pamuk’s innovations in Turkish literary modernity. Through the focus on a dissident “archival mode” of writing in The White Castle and My Name is Red, Pamuk develops sites of literary authority based in Islamic tradition and Ottoman history that supersede the limits of Republican state authority.