There were gains and losses in this, of course. Thus, in providing a more coherent economic focus, they also underplayed the complex workings of culture and politics. Yet, in my mind, given the political and educational context at that time the gains significantly outweighed the losses. Any assessment of Schooling in Capitalist America must be grounded in an appreciation of what it accomplished. A large portion of the current analyses of the ways in which the economic, cultural, and political spheres are articulated in education could not have been done if Bowles and Gintis had not labored before.