On a number of occasions in the previous chapter we referred to the ‘tools of the trade’ that professional evaluators use when carrying out their work. Much has been written elsewhere about these tools; and new tools and methods of using them are invented as quickly as old ones become worn out and thrown away. Clearly, there is no chance (or necessity) of us covering the field in detail, and even a superficial canter through would take up more space than is avail­ able here. In this chapter we shall attempt a classification of the common types of investiga­ tion carried out in exhibition evaluations, indicate the considerations to bear in mind when designing them, and describe some of the basic tools necessary for actually doing the work. We shall concentrate on some of the techniques of formative and summative evaluation.