First, and most obviously, much social work is conducted in isolation from other co-workers. A teacher who is threatened with attack in the classroom may call for assistance. But a social worker on a home visit or residential assignment usually spends long periods of time alone with the client. Most social service departments have no formal policy on reducing the risk of attack. However, since the three murders described here, there is growing pressure from social workers for social service departments to arrange more joint visiting of clients and to provide staff with effective means of communication such as personal alarms and/or cordless telephones.