Although the definition of a "mega-event" is still unclear (Jafari, 1988), researchers began to use the tenn over the last decade as a "mega" version of a "hallmark event" which has been defined as a "Major onetime or recurring event of limited duration, developed primarily to enhance the awareness, appeal, and profitability of a tourism destination in the short and/or long tenn" (Ritchie, 1984, 2). In addition, mega-events also include international events that are not necessarily "developed primarily" for tourism purposes but can "serve" to promote a destination. Thus, a parsimonious definition of a mega-event is "an event with (1) a large number of participants or visitors and (2) worldwide publicity" (Sacher & Tschurtschenthaler, 1987, 103).