Standing at the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is easy to forget the relatively recent provenance of international development. Throughout history states have taken measures to improve the economies that serve as their revenue base. In modern history, systematic government planning along these lines was well established by the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the form of mercantilist trade policies designed to maximize the flow of gold into the royal treasuries. Later in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, colonial powers promulgated plans for the economic development of colonies, again, with an eye to maximizing revenue for the colonizers. Both old and new nation-states found in nationalism a powerful incentive to appear rich and strong in the community of nations, but felt less obliged to look responsive to the needs of the general population. Education was one tool in the state's efforts to compete with other states. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the state used education to produce the bureaucrats and soldiers needed to seize and maintain empires. Later in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the welfare state began to emerge in Europe and North America (Lumsdaine, 1993) but until World War I, economic development

was more often synonymous with the amassing of national or imperial wealth (Arndt, 1987). The idea that everyone was entitled to development and to an education was not expressed clearly until after World War II. The idea of international development, or bringing international resources to bear to promote national development, is mainly a product of the post-World War II period, but its roots lie in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.