Spider maps represent a technique that was developed by Hanf (1971) as an alternative to traditional notetaking from text. In spider mapping the main idea of the text passage is written in the center of a page and related subordinate concepts are drawn on lines connected to the central idea. Additional lines with increasingly detailed content can be added to the drawing, with the end product looking similar to a spider web. Spider maps can be seen as simplified pattern notes (see Chapter 20), as the format for representing ideas and relationships is similar. Spider maps differ from pattern notes in that only hierarchical relationships between ideas are depicted in spider maps, whereas in pattern notes relationships between coordinate concepts are depicted.