A causal review of the research relating learning disabilities to intelligence indicates that the field has been plagued by vague conceptualizations and a lack of clear theoretical foundation (e.g., Farnham-Diggary, 1986). One approach to enhance conceptual clarity is to examine theoretical principles related to cognitive explanations of intelligence and to identify points of overlap with the field of LD (e.g., Day & Borkowski; 1987; Sternberg, 1987). The chapters in the next section offer an extension of current models of intelligence and add definitional clarity to our understanding of LD. These advances cover such topics as domain specific knowledge (Pellegrino and Goldman, Chapter 3), multiple resource models (Ceci, Chapter 4, & Short, Cuddy, Friebert, and Schatschneider, Chapter 6), practical intelligence and student attributions (Wagner and Kistner, Chapter 5, and IQ scores, Siegel, Chapter 7) to intellectual functioning of learning disabled students.