This is in contrast to studies on behaviorally or emotionally disordered pupils’ characteristics, which indicate that externalizers are by far the largest subgroup (Achenbach, 1979; Achenback & Edebrock 1978; Edelbrock & Achenbach, 1984; Epstein, Kaufman, & Cullinan, 1985; Quay, 1978) and are far more likely to be referred to special education (Algozzine, 1976; Cullinan, Epstein, & Kauffman, 1984; Mullen & Wood, 1986; Smith, Wood, & Grimes, 1987). There is considerable evidence in longitudinal studies that internalizers, such as depressed children, have been at considerably less risk for later problems in adulthood (Robins 1978, 1979).