From the perspective of contemporary cognitive theory, achievement is best characterized in relation to cognitive competence, hence, it represents more than just score points on a standardized test. Achievement, in our view, includes some understanding of the declarative/procedural mix of ideas and actions that define skilled performance at a given point in time (Anderson, 1982, 1983). Performance underlying achievement is a constructive product, reflecting how and whether an individual responds to constraints imposed by the environment, the problem, or the question asker (Bolles, 1988). Learners able to bridge these constraints may well be judged to have achieved because they are on grade level or have answered enough questions correctly to be given credit for mastery of an objective. Evaluating only at the level of correct response, however, can be misleading as variance in the production of correct responses (i.e., latencies) may indicate mastery of a technique but uncertainty about content.