But clients will maneuver to obstruct counseling, and ministers will need to take appropriate action. These maneuvers by clients are referred to collectively as "resistance." Two opposing forces skirmish in clients: the motivation to improve the life situation, and the tendency to maintain life patterns that have at least brought them thus far. The term "resistance" is used by psychoanalysts to indicate the "instinctive opposition displayed toward any attempt to lay bare the unconscious."1 The biblical phrase closest to resistance is "hardening the heart."