State formation as a phrase already covers a number of concepts, but it appears pertinent now to add a further one to the amalgam: state formation under supervision, or, more precisely, state formation as a process evolving under external supervision and direction. The idea that this concerns something novel may seem surprising at first. Exter­ nal involvement with the processes of state formation, particularly in the Third World, has been present for a long time, usually from the very inception of the decolonised states concerned and thus virtually by definition. Hovvever, categorisation as a distinct variant of state formation appears justified, given the extent to vvhich various forms of external, that is, international preoccupation vvith the internal policy framevvorks and the structuring of political processes in formally independent Third World countries have come to be concentrated and made concrete in recent years. These tendencies imply a crystallisation of an increasingly explicit tutelage relation vis-ä-vis the countries concerned. Discussion of these issues has developed largely around the recently rediscovered, though by no means unequivocal, concept of ‘gover­ nance’ and the adoption of political ‘conditionalities’ by the global organisations and the major donor governments. This chapter aims at a preliminary reconnaissance of the emerging field: it looks at the effect of recent modes of external intervention in Third World

countries in relation to their structuring of policy processes and public administrative frameworks. Subsequent discussion considers the con­ cept of ‘good governance’ in a wider perspective. As a background, there is a brief review of some current concepts of state formation.