In chapter 9 a summary was given of the pressures that both the commander and his subordinates have to bear. In chapter 12 those aspects which enable soldiers to withstand stress were examined. Now we must investigate whether the leader, too, can rely on these same antidotes to extreme pressures. To begin with, we should consider a few selected, general human reactions which always affect the leader. In addition there are a number of possible individual weaknesses which a leader will have either by inheritance or because of his upbringing and education. They will strongly determine any decision he might make. But in the context of this general discussion they are not considered. They have been studied elsewhere on the basis of historical examples.1