International tourism results in a form of imported development with many physical and social repercussions in the Third World. The same effects may derive from other externally inspired changes in these countries but those due to tourism are sufficiently distinctive to have given rise to much environmental and social research. The question of wildlife conservation in Africa, for example, is a large subject in its own right but is linked to tourism because of fears that unrestrained poaching or poor management will do more than destroy the animals and their habitat but will threaten a lucrative industry as well. On the social side tourism leads to a ‘revolution of rising expectations’ and western consumerism. It also contributes to a push for modernization without the prior industrial phase of development experienced in Europe and North America in the last century.