IN THE final stages of their war with China the Japanese had taken the precaution of replacing their aggressive minister in Seoul, Otori Keisuke, by the distinguished former foreign minister, Inoue Kaoru, who used his charm to persuade the foreign diplomats and even the Queen of his country's good intentions. On his initiative, Pak Y ng-hyo, the only one of the exiled reformers for whom the King had any affection, was allowed to return and received a ceremonious welcome. The Taew ngun was once again forced out of office and Pak became the joint head of a new cabinet, along with Kim Hong-jip. Japanese advisers were supplied to train the heads of the new ministries, and a number of students were sent to colleges in Japan.