During the Musahiban period, the role of the state in society had changed and the state apparatus had been greatly expanded, coming to exert control over hitherto independent social fields. One aspect of this was the build-up of what Althusser has called the ideological state apparatuses, the most important of which was the educational system, where it simultaneously assumed the character of polity expansion (e.g. establishment of a secular educational system) and polity dominance secularization (e.g. establishment of governmentcontrolled educational institutions while undermining the influence of the independent madrasas). The institutional build-up was geared to the needs of the modern state and the public sector in which most of the new middle class found employment. This state-dominance in development became even further pronounced after the 1950s, where the state also took over a leading role in the economic development.