Cognition refers to knowing and thinking. Hence, it involves taking in, storing, retrieving, transforming, and manipulating information that is obtained through the senses. It also involves perception, awareness, judgement, the understanding of emotions and, of course, memory and learning. Almost everything we do during our waking lives involves thinking (and perhaps while we are asleep as weIl!). Indeed, it is fairly difficult to identify aspects of our daily lives that involve no thinking. In this chapter we consider some of the more common concepts to be found in the literature on cognition that relate to thought, learning, remembering, and problemsolving.