This book began with a single central question: why did the Japanese government fail to achieve its reform objectives in the sphere of education? The previous two chapters identified the immediate factors responsible for this failure. It was demonstrated that conflict within the conservative camp and opposition aggravation of that conflict were primarily to blame for the lack of progress in the government’s two recent initiatives. Chapters 2 to 6 complemented this analysis by identifying the sources of these conflicts. It is the aim of this final chapter to review the findings of these two sections in tandem in an effort to provide a more complete examination for the failure of education reform. Based on this analysis, the second part of the chapter will seek to determine what insights this case study provides for the broader question of the Japanese system’s more general ability to adapt to new policy challenges.