In addition to the LDP and the MOE-the two actors most involved in the formal process of formulating education policy —numerous other organizations have an interest in the results of this policymaking process and seek to influence the outcome. Most prominent among these ‘external actors’ are the business community, the association of local education superintendents, the other national associations of educational administrators, the teachers’ union and the various associations of university faculty and officials. All of these groups are technically ‘external’ in that they are not officially a part of the national government. Some, however, are more external than others.