When we talk of ‘making a plan’ we can mean two things. A plan is a diagram or representation on a flat surface. It is also a scheme to accomplish some purpose. We sketch out a route plan on paper. It helps someone to reach a destination. An architect creates a plan on the screen of a computer-aided design system. It guides the construction of the building. Plans for writing have that dual purpose of mapping out the structure of the intended text and acting as a guide to composing. But unlike a route map or an architect’s plan they are not normally tight specifications.