Mankind has struggled against the threat of earthquakes for centuries. Early construction using masonry and wood has evolved to the more modern materials of steel and concrete. To a large degree, structural engineers have been successful in reducing the seismic hazard through the use of these better materials, coupled with improved design. Response control technologies present even greater opportunities for improved the seismic resistance of buildings. These technologies allow for much greater control over the level of damage to buildings due to earthquake shaking, and in the case of seismic isolation, even allowing for full functionality even after extremely rare earthquakes with return periods of thousands of years. It is possible to not only substantially reduce the level of damage to the primary structure, but also to enhance life safety by better protecting non-structural components and building contents. The potential for buildings to be fully functional even after a severe earthquake has been realised.