As we saw in Chapter 1, there are several ways of approaching the topic of reasoning. In this chapter we focus on syllogisms, and in Chapter 3 we look at experiments on deductions using what are called prepositional connectives, especially “if”. This will allow you to see how the empirical base of the subject has developed. Alongside the empirical foundations I shall also set out in simple terms the formal, logical norms by which performance on the tasks has traditionally been assessed. The status of these norms is controversial; the relation between norms and performance will occupy us not only here but also in Chapter 4 (on content and context), in Chapter 5 (on theories of reasoning), and in Chapter 10 (on rationality).