In this chapter we advance the empirical discussion on the extent to which changes in the degree of land concentration affect the pace and scope of rural development as defined in Chapter 3. The experience of a selected sample of five developing countries is reviewed on a country-by country basis. This review is presented in the context of an explanatory framework for grouping countries into categories. The case studies are presented with two chief aims in mind. The first is to understand how the varied agrarian systems which existed before land reform explain the policy choice.