Transition to Democracy There was a difference of 30 years between the democratic transition and subsequent promulgation of the Constitutions in Italy and in Spain. Thus, the process of democratization occurred in significantly different geopolitical, international and socio-economic contexts in the two countries. This makes historical comparison of the political and legal context somewhat difficult. In Italy the process of democratization began after the end of the Second World War, a period which was characterized by sharp internal divisions. As a matter of fact, from 1943 to 1945 the country was split into different polities. The end of the war and the defeat of fascism, which was marked by the period of liberation, resulted in the first free elections in 1946, and the right of women to vote for the first time in Italian history. The transition to democracy was marked by the formation of a strong alliance between all the main anti-fascist forces and resulted in the promulgation of the Constitution in December 1947, which was implemented on 1 January 1948.