Having laid out the tradition of spontaneous order and selected from among its exponents the groups identified as the Scots and the Moderns, exemplified by Adam Smith and Friedrich Hayek, we are now able to proceed in our search for the invisible hand. By analysing their explanatory approach to the social institutions of science, morality, law and government and the market we will begin to develop an understanding of the core elements of the approach. Our study views spontaneous order as an explanatory approach to social theory, and so it makes sense to begin our analysis with an examination of the Scots’ views on science and social science.