In Chapters 6 and 7, we discussed prominent perspectives on the role of the region in the global economy – regional innovation systems and the learning region. While distinctive from one another in some important respects, both measure regional success with reference to the success of globally competitive firms that operate within the region. Their answer to “the regional question” – why do some regions attract investment while others do not – lies within the region. Regions that do not tailor their human and physical infrastructure to enable globally competitive firms to succeed will fail to attract investment and fall to the bottom of the regional pile. They will be identified as losers and dysfunctional. This is the contemporary account of uneven development – failure to “learn,” failure to thrive.