As Allen Scott (2005) has demonstrated, the Los Angeles region has retained its position as the dominant pre-production, production, and post-production center for the media entertainment industries throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century. That said, production activity outside Los Angeles has been an important factor in both the creative and economic calculus of producers – particularly since the 1970s. However, both the geography of that external production and the factors driving it have changed. With the gradual emergence of a horizontally and vertically integrated media entertainment industry and the changing spatial investment strategies of multi-national firms, the distribution of media entertainment production has developed a new shape.