Political activity in France’s départements et territoires d’outre-mer (DOM-TOMs) takes place within an institutional framework of regular elections to the National Assembly and Senate, as well as municipal, departmental and regional councils or territorial assemblies. Residents also cast ballots in French presidential and European Union elections. Debates on the exact status of each DOM-TOM-including demands for greater autonomy or independence in some areas-often dominate political life. Especially in New Caledonia, struggles between pro-and anti-independence groups have led to periods of upheaval and violence.