He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator

— Francis Bacon

Chapter 9 reported the advanced quantitative techniques of analysing data and improving process performance. In this chapter we shall deal with another category of techniques which we have named ‘ qualitative techniques ’ . Although they are data driven, they depend heavily on logical reviews and judgemental assessments. There are numbers, but the improvements are not directly derived from a statistical process or a numeric solution. There are many such qualitative techniques and we have selected the most relevant ones for Six Sigma and Operational Excellence programmes as follows:

R1: Benchmarking R2: Balanced Scorecard (BSC) R3: European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) R4: Sales and Operations Planning (S & OP) R5: Kanban R6: Activity Based Costing (ABC) R7: ISO 9000

The selection criteria of these techniques are the same as those for the quantitative techniques, except that for qualitative techniques there is less emphasis on specialist knowledge. However, qualitative techniques require specific training, in particular for S & OP, EFQM and ABC.