Ever since the new data-processing tools first emerged thirty or forty years ago, businesspeople have both overand under-rated the importance of information in the organization. We - and I include myself - over-rated the possibilities to the point where we talked of computer-generated <business models' that could make decisions and might even be able to run much of the business. But we also grossly underrated the new tools; we saw in them the means to do better what executives were already doing to manage their organizations.