The above comments should not be construed to mean that we do not believe that efforts should not be directed into making technically excellent wine, we do. However, in the same way that a great wine shows great balance so it is that balance needs to be achieved in the understanding of how wine businesses, and wine growers in particular, can increase their return on investment. First and foremost this requires the realisation that the value of wine, and what the wine product actually is, is co-created between the producer and the consumer. You cannot have one without the other. This therefore means that wine is not just a physical product but is in fact the entire bundle of meanings, experiences, values and desires associated with ‘what’s in the bottle’ and how it got there. If this is appreciated then we are more than halfway to understanding the essential nature of wine marketing because the mechanics of marketing, in terms of segmentation, selection of communication channels and marketing management, can then be most efficiently and effectively applied (see Plate 11.1).