F Action learning (action-reflection learning) F Checklists, attribute listing, morphological

analysis, and forced relationships F Using analogy F PCT approach and analogy F The Gordon technique F Dialogue via the “talking stick”

One of the oldest forms of systematic group problem solving (introduced in the 1950’s) is brainstorming. Originally developed in the U.S. advertising industry, it has been used in all kinds of organizations, worldwide. Its basic tenet is to separate idea creation from idea evaluation. Why? Because if the two processes are combined, ideation is likely to suffer. Visualize these typical reactions anyone of us might have to a new idea:

“Good theory, but it’ll never work.” “We’ve tried that one before.” “It conflicts with current policies.” “The boss (or headquarters, or the field) won’t go

for it.” “Sounds expensive.” “It might set a precedent.” “Not in the budget.” “Is this the time for it?” “Let’s not rush into that.” “But our people (or customers) are different.” “What about the extra people to implement it?” Many more of these “killer phrases” could be

added. The point is that if you or I come up with an idea and someone reacts negatively to it, it isn’t very likely to encourage further ideation on our part. Conversely, if all of our ideas are accepted (recorded) without evaluation, we’ll keep contributing.