The first foods didn’t require much in the way of equipment; they were eaten raw. Nuts, berries, meats, tubers, insects, and plants were eaten in a totally unadulterated form by early modern humans 40,000 years ago. However, as time passed, humans began to discover (sometimes intentionally, sometimes accidentally) various means for modifying foods, both to preserve them and to change their appearance and flavor. These methods included cooking (heating), cooling, salting, pickling, smoking, drying, and fermenting. In addition, early humans began to combine foods in imaginative ways to add flavorings and seasonings and to alter their form to make them more appetizing or attractive.