One of the greatest challenges in marine science today is to accurately project the long-term effects of climate change on coastal and marine environments, notably their biotic communities and habitats, physical and chemical processes, and the sustainability of their resources. The intractable impacts of climate change on these environments also pose a threat to human populations which historically have concentrated in the coastal zone. Coastal storms, rising sea levels, inundation, and increased flooding are causing significant damage to numerous coastal communities and other developed areas in many regions of the world.