The management of risk in any human endeavor requires careful and objective consideration of the environment within which one is operating. In the business of security, the risk management process begins with understanding the target environment as being fraught with risks that must be identified, assessed, and managed. Figure 4.1 illustrates a fairly routine activity, which occurs at ports every day: a tanker truck servicing a vessel at a dock. It could be a fueling operation, a water truck servicing a port utility system, or as in this instance, a waste disposal company removing wastewater from a passenger cruise vessel during turnover in the port. The activity is a routine and necessary port–vessel interface operation. What risks may be associated with it? Did the port receive advance notice of the vehicle’s arrival on the day and time scheduled? Do the vehicle driver and any occupants possess a port or government-issued credential, which positively identifies them and provides advanced authorization to be in this particular restricted area? Has the truck been subjected to a thorough screening to establish that there are no hazardous devices or weapons being introduced into the port’s restricted access area? Has the vehicle operator provided a manifest of the materials or products being brought into the port? These questions and others present the port facility security officer (FSO) with a risk management foundation for identifying threats and vulnerabilities associated with the business of running a port. Tanker truck shipside. This tanker truck is parked dockside adjacent to a large passenger cruise ship being serviced while in port. Vehicles permitted to access the wharves and piers in ports present port security managers with a challenge to ensure there is no risk of harm to the docked vessel from potential threats such as vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429254840/8874e497-73ac-49c4-8c37-0e767b6fee2f/content/fig4_1.jpg"/>