Anatomical features of each vertebral body that can be identified radiographically (Figs 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3) include:

Anterior vertebral body

Posterior arch formed by pedicles and lamina, enclosing the spinal canal

Pedicles: posterior bony projections from the posterolateral corners of the vertebral body

Laminae curve posteromedially from the pedicles and join in the midline at the base of the spinous process to complete the bony arch of the spinal canal

Spinous process projects posteriorly

Transverse processes project laterally from the junction of pedicle and lamina.

Normal lumbar spine anatomy. (a) Lateral view. (b) Frontal view. Note the following features: vertebral body (B), intervertebral disc (D), pedicle (P), facet joint (F), intervertebral foramen (Fo), inferior articular process (I), superior articular process (S), transverse process (T), lamina (L), spinous process (SP). https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429188220/3484b4d1-59a9-4fca-b168-e36b283c62ba/content/fig9_1.jpg"/> Normal cervical spine anatomy. (a) Lateral view. Note the following: facet joint (F), spinous process (SP), pharynx (Ph), hyoid bone (H), trachea (Tr) and posterior cervical line from C1 to C3. Note also measurements of predental space (between anterior arch of C1 and the odontoid peg), retropharyngeal space at C2 and retrotracheal space at C6. (b) Frontal view of lower cervical spine. Note the following: intervertebral disc (D), uncovertebral joint (U), transverse process (T), spinous process (SP). https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429188220/3484b4d1-59a9-4fca-b168-e36b283c62ba/content/fig9_2.jpg"/> Normal lumbar spine anatomy: CT. (a) Reconstructed image in the sagittal plane showing the levels of the three following transverse sections. (b) Transverse section at level of pedicles. (c) Transverse section at level of intervertebral foramina. (d) Transverse section at level of intervertebral disc. In images (b), (c) and (d) note the following: vertebral body (B), pedicle (P), facet joint (F), inferior articular process (I), superior articular process (S), transverse process (T), lamina (L), spinous process (SP), nerve root (NR), spinal canal (SC), psoas muscle (Ps), paraspinal muscle (Pa). https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429188220/3484b4d1-59a9-4fca-b168-e36b283c62ba/content/fig9_3.jpg"/>