From the very beginning of the discussions about integration, the examples used were provider-owned entities such as Kaiser, Health Partners, Intermountain, and other health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and all were seen as seamless enterprises able to control price and volume because the owners were actually involved in the production of the product. In effect, HMOs were the very first integrated systems tying together the delivery and financing of care. This binds the patient both in terms of clinical care and affordability, knowing that the insurance plan would always offer the benefits and a place to receive those benefits.