ABSTRACT

  Erythrocyte Counts and Related Values in Avians.

RBC

Hct

Hb

LX W

MCV

MCH

MCHC

Class Aves

Subclass Neornithes (Recent Birds)

Order Tinamiformes (Tinanmous)

Family Tinamidae

Rhynchotus rufescens170, red-winged tinamou, captive, n =25

1.87

34.3

22.0

183

Order Struthioniformes (Ratites)

Family Struthionidae (ostriches)

Struthio camelus australis 14, blue necked ostrich, 1–7yr, captive, n=5–8

1.98

50.5

14.2

235

75

29

Struthio camelus australis 74 ♂, South African ostrich, semi-free, n=3

1.89

48.4

15.6

14.0 × 7.9

256

83

32

Struthio camelus australis 74 ♀, semi-free, n=3

1.94

49.5

15.8

14.0 × 7.9

255

81

32

Struthio camelus australis 74, suspended in plasma

15.3 × 9.3

423Struthio camelus 12 ♂, African ostrich, adult, farmed, n ≥30

1.80

33.0

12.5

170

61

33

Struthio camelus 12 ♀, adult, farmed, n ≥36

1.70

33.0

11.8

177

62

33

Struthio camelus 12, farmed, 1–3mo, n ≥10

1.30

30.0

8.9

159

51

30

Struthio camelus 12, farmed, 4–5mo, n ≥10

2.00

34.0

11.7

165

58

34

Struthio camelus 12, farmed, 9mo, n ≥5

2.10

37.0

12.7

164

57

35

Struthio camelus 12, farmed, 12–72 mo, n =25

1.50

40.0

13.8

193

71

37

Struthio camelus 197, farmed, adult, n=apparently 50

2.10

43.3a

16.7a

16.2 × 11.3

206

79

39

Struthio camelus 197, farmed, juvenile, n=apparently 50

1.80

36.0a

10.9a

16.5 × 11.4

200

61

30

Struthio camelus massaicus 35, massai ostrich, 5mo juveniles, n=4

1.91

37.0a

13.3a

13.2 × 7.5

197

71

36

Struthio camelus massaicus 35, same subjects as above one year later, n=4

2.42

48.0a

15.6a

13.3 × 7.5

201

65

33

Struthio camelus 34, reared chicks, 4–6wk, ∼5kg, control, n=10

35.1a

Struthio camelus 34, reared chicks, 4–6wk, water deprivation, 5days, n=10

38.9a

Struthio camelus 151, adult, sampled under field conditions

1.80

45.0

16.9

212

82

38

Struthio camelus 152

14.1 × 8.7

Struthio camelus 169,

1.70

32.0

12.2

174

61

33

Struthio camelus 171, 338, >5 yr

1.50

35.0

11.7

219

78

33

Struthio camelus 338, 5–6 months

1.70

33.8

10.8

192

64

32

Struthio camelus 298, adult, apparently farmed for meat, n=24

1.77

48.7

14.2

275

80

29

Family Casuariidae (cassowaries)

Casuarius casuarius 14 ♂, Australian or double wattled cassowary, adult, captive, n=4

2.10

50.8

14.5

246

70

29

Family Dromaiidae (emus)

Dromaius novaehollandiae 151, emu, adults,

1.85

47.4

16.0

219

87

39

indices per Wintrobe formulae based on reported hemogram

256

86

34

Dromaius novaehollandiae 339, lymph leukemia, 11-16-94, n=1

16.5

Dromaius novaehollandiae 339, lymph leukemia, 12-02-94, n=1

11.5

Family Rheidae (rheas)

Rhea americana 157, common rhea, greater rhea, nandu

13.4 × 7.8

Rhea americana 171,338, 1yr

2.25

41.6

13.4

185

60

32

424Order Struthioniformes (Ratites)

Family Rheidae (rheas)

Pterocnemia pennata 273, lesser rhea, 4–7 rmo old, n=64

2.10

42.0a

15.1a

210a

72

36a

Pterocnemia pennata 273, farmed juvenile, 8–24 mo old, n=24

2.30

48.0

17.8

218

77

37

Pterocnemia pennata 273, farmed adult, >24 mo old, n=36

2.20

48.0

17.8

219

81

37

Order Gaviiformes (Loons)

Family Gaviidae (loons)

Gavia immer 299, common or great northern loon, adult, n=117

47.0a

Gavia immer 299, chick 1wk-2mo old, n=13

40.0a

Gavia arctica 333, arctic loon, oiled from Apex Houston spill n=16

32.9

Order Sphenisciformes (Penguins)

Family Spheniscidae (penguins)

Pygoscelis papua 48, gentoo penguin, adult, wild, n=13–14

2.24a

45.0a

17.2a

206

77

38

Pygoscelis papua 48, juvenile, wild, n=5

1.62a

37.0a

13.1a

232

81

35

Pygoscelis papua 48, adult, captive, n=10–14

44.0

16.0

37

Pygoscelis papua 77, adult, captive, n=12–14

1.60

43.0

16.1

274

99

36

Pygoscelis papua 75 adult, wild, n=5

43.4

16.4

38

Pygoscelis papua 75, chicks, 3–4 wk old, wild, n=6

31.1

11.9

39

Pygoscelis papua 85, 292, adult, wild, n=20

1.77

45.0

16.3

14.1 × 8.2

255

93

36

Pygoscelis papua 160, n=6–44

2.92

47.8

17.3

185

90

37

Pygoscelis papua 145, captive, n=9–20

1.61

45.0

15.7

258

95

38

425Pygoscelis adeliae 75, adelie penguin, adult, wild, n=8

46.2

16.5

38

Pygoscelis adeliae 75, chicks, 3–4wk old, wild, n=12

29.0

11.1

38

Pygoscelis adeliae 85, 292, adult, wild, n=24

2.17

50.3

17.6

13.7 × 8.5

235

82

35

Pygoscelis adeliae 108, adult, wild, n=2♂, 1♀

46.3

16.3

35

Pygoscelis antarctica 75, chinstrap penguin, adult, wild, n=6

52.8

19.6

38

Pygoscelis antarctica 85, 292, adult, wild, n=21

1.91

46.3

16.6

13.4 × 8.6

243

87

36

Pygoscelis antarctica 194, nestling, wild, n=19

33.0abd

Pygoscelis antarctica 194, juvenile, wild, n=32

41.8abd

Pygoscelis antarctica 194, adult, molting, wild, n=10

42 2abc

Pygoscelis antarctica 194, adult, breeding, wild n=25

51.1abe

Pygoscelis adeliae 107, 1 day post hatching, wild

∼1.80

∼43

6.5–7.0

13–14 X ∼8

220–240

∼45

∼18–21

Pygoscelis adeliae 107, just prior to independence (water entry)

∼1.9

∼44

∼14

13–14 X ∼8

220–240

∼75–80

∼36–40

Pygoscelis papua 107, 1 day post hatching, wild

∼0.6

∼24

∼4.5–5.0

13–14 X ∼8

220–240

∼45

∼18–21

Pygoscelis papua 107, just prior to independence (water entry)

∼1.8

∼42

14.5–15.5

13–14 X ∼8

220–240

∼75–80

∼36–40

Pygoscelis antarctica 107, 1 day post hatching, wild

∼0.9

∼22

∼4.5–5.0

13–14 X ∼8

220–240

∼45

∼18–21

Pygoscelis antarctica 107, just prior to independence (water entry)

∼1.7

∼38–39

14.5–15.5

13–14 X ∼8

220–240

∼75–80

∼36–40

Genus Eudyptes (crested penguins)

Eudyptes(crestatus) chrysocome145, rockhopper captive, n=11–17

1.94

46.0

17.9

234

92

39

Eudyptes (crestatus) chrysocome48, adult, wild n=33–43

2.36a

45.0a

16.4ab

195

69

37b

Eudyptes (crestatus) chrysocome48, juvenile, wild, n=7

1.95a

38.0a

14.0a

201

72

37

Eudyptes (crestatus) chrysocome48, adult, captive, n=12–15

47.0

17.9b

37b

Eudyptes(crestatus) chrysocome48, pre-moult, adult, wild, n=9–11

2.53c

46.0c

18.4c

184c

73

40c

Eudyptes (crestatus) chrysocome 48, post-moult, adult, wild, n=7

1.59c

37.0c

12.2c

236c

77

33c

Eudyptes (crestatus) chrysocome 233, wild, n=45

51.1

Genus Spheniscus (black-footed penguins)

Spheniscus magellanicus 48, magellanic pen., adult, wild, n=9–12

1.99

42.0

13.9

215

70

33

426 Order Sphenisciformes (Penguins)

Family Spheniscidae (penguins)

Spheniscus magellanicus 48, pre-moult, adult, wild, n=10–12

2.14

42.0

14.9c

204

70

35c

Spheniscus magellanicus 48, post-moult, adult, wild, n=7

1.78

41.0

12.6c

231

71

31c

Spheniscus humboldti 83, humboldt or Peruvian penguin, adult, 3 days post-capture, n=15

1.90

41.0

14.4

215

76

35

Spheniscus humboldti 83, adult, 15 wk post-capture, n =14

1.80

43.0

15.0

238

83

35

Spheniscus humboldti 145, captive, n=10–24

2.05

48.0

17.6

228

85

38

Spheniscus humboldti 160, n=110–875

2.15

48.9

15.2

242

81

31

Spheniscus humboldti 259, wild Chilean, mature, n=51

49.4

Spheniscus demersus 100, blackfoot, jackass or African penguin, n=41

1.57

46.7

15.4

315

103

33

Spheniscus demersus 145, captive, n=12–42

1.74

44.0

16.8

254

95

38

Spheniscus demersus 160, n =175–345

1.86

46.1

13.7

249

80

31

Spheniscus demersus 177, juvenile captive, healthy, n =11

2.10

42.8

14.2

210

70

34

Spheniscus demersus 177, juvenile, captive, malaria inf. n =18

1.80

38.4

12.7

217

69

32

Spheniscus mendiculus 293 ♂, Galapagos penguin, wild, n=79

45.3*

Spheniscus mendiculus 193 ♀, adult, wild, n=53

41.7*

427 Genus Eudyptula (dwarf penguins)

Eudyptula minor 18, 29, little or blue penguin, 1.1kg, wild, n ≥6

1.66

41.2

13.8

18.8 × 9.2

229

79

32

Eudyptula minor 296, adult, wild, non-breeding, n =49–132

2.04

43.2

15.1

217

74

34

Eudyptula minor 296, adult, wild, breeding, n =58–113

2.00

42.5

14.3

223

72

32

Eudyptula minor 296, adult, wild, molt, n =25–46

1.87a

45.3a

15.2

252a

81a

32

Eudyptula minor 296, adult, wild, overall mean, n =132–291

2.01

43.3

14.5

223

74

34

Eudyptula minor 296, adult, wild, good body condition, n=89–213

2.05b

43.5b

72b

Eudyptula minor 296, adult, wild, poor body condition, n=40–67

1.88b

42.6b

79b

Genus Aptenodytes (giant penguins)

Aptenodytes forsteri 108 ♂, emperor penguin, n =2

47.0

16.9

36

Aptenodytes patagonicus 145, king penguin, captive, n =6–7

1.58

45.0

16.9

288

108

38

Aptenodytes patagonicus 160, n =7–35

1.49

47.8

16.7

262

104

35

Order Podicipediformes

Family Podicipedidae

Aechmophorus occidentalis 333, western grebe, oil spill, n=25

37.5

Order Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)

Family Diomedeidae (Albatrosses)

Diomedea immutabilis 119, Laysan albatross, adult, wild, n=79

37.9*

Diomedea immutabilis 119, chick, wild n=72

30.4*

Phoebastria irrorata 218, waved albatross, adult, wild, n=47

38.2

428 Order Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)

Family Procellariidae

Pterodroma phaeopygia 119, Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel, adult, wild, n=28

49.0

Pterodroma phaeopygia 119, chick, wild, n=56

49.0

Macronectes giganteus 75, giant fulmar, adult, wild, n=14

43.4

14.6

34

Macronectes giganteus 300, southern giant petrel, adult, wild, n=20

47.4

Puffinus puffinus 49, manx shearwater, fledgling, wild, n=9

2.87

48.0

14.8

166

53

32

Puffinus pacifiais 119, wedge-tailed shearwater, adult, wild, n=45

48.0*

Puffinus pacificus 119, chick, wild, n=45

37.0*

Puffinus tenuirostris 321, short-tailed shearwater, late embryo, n=6

1.50

27.0

8.3

179

55

31

Puffinus tenuirostris 321, hatchling, 68g, wild, n=3–5

1.50

34.0

10.3

221

72

30

Puffinus tenuirostris 321, late nestling, 654ga, wild, n=16

3.50

53.0a

13.9a

155a

41a

26

Puffinus tenuirostris 321, adult, 588ga, wild, n=25

3.40

57.0a

17.2a

178a

52a

30

Fulmarus glacialis314, wild, arctic, northern/arctic fulmar, n=34

42.8

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♂, Cory’s shearwater, pre-lay n=28

40.5

11.3

28

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♀, pre-laying, adult, wild, n=19

38.7

11.5

30

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♂, egg-laying, adult, wild, n=28

41.9

13.1

31

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♀, egg-laying, adult, wild, n=19

39.8

11.7

29

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♂, incubation, adult, wild, n=28

40.7

11.9

29

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♀, incubation, adult, wild, n=19

39.8

11.9

30

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♂, hatching, adult, wild, n=28

40.3

11.7

29

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♀, hatching, adult, wild, n=19

41.3

12.1

29

429 Order Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)

Family Procellariidae

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♂, chick-rearing, adult, wild, n=20

41.4

11.6

28

Calonectris diomedea 324 ♀, chick rearing, adult, wild, n=7

43.6

12.1

28

Family Hydrobatidae (storm petrels)

Oceanites oceanicus 85, 292, Wilson’s storm petrel, wild, n=30

4.02

49.3

17.0

11.8.X 6.4

125

43

35

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 1 day old, wild, n=6

1.60

27.3

11.7

13.1.X 8.4

171

74

43

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 2 days old, wild, n=4

1.82

26.2

11.6

.–

144

64

45

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 3 days old, wild, n=2

1.76

29.0

12.0

12.1.X 8.x

168

70

42

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 4 days old, wild, n=2

1.96

27.0

12.5

12.0.X 8.4

142

66

46

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 7 days old, wild, n=2

1.92

27.5

9.3

.–

143

49

34

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 8 days old, wild, n=2

2.60

34.0

9.3

12.5.X 7.6

132

36

27

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 10 days old, wild, n=2

2.27

34.0

8.8

12.9.X 7.9

149

39

26

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 12 days old, wild, n=2

2.31

35.0

10.3

12.3.X 8.0

151

45

30

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 13 days old, wild, n=2

2.51

33.5

9.8

12.9.X 8.0

134

39

29

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 14 days old, wild, n=2

2.76

40.8

11.2

.–

147

40

28

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 15 days old, wild, n=2

2.08

30.0

9.6

12.0.X 7.4

145

46

32

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 16 days old, wild, n=2

2.27

33.5

10.4

12.0.X 7.2

149

46

31

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 19 days old, wild, n=2

2.35

30.5

9 6

12.7.X 7.3

130

41

31

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 20 days old, wild, n=2

2.77

37.0

11.0

12.8.X 8.0

133

40

30

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 25 days old, wild, n=1

2.78

30.0

10.0

11.3.X 6.6

108

36

33

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 26 days old, wild, n=2

2.86

32.0

10.2

11.4.X 6.8

112

36

32

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 27 days old, wild, n=1

2.92

31.0

10.5

12.3.X 7.4

106

36

34

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 28 days old, wild, n=4

2.62

35.5

11.1

11.7.X 7.5

135

42

31

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 30 days old, wild, n=4

3.13

34.2

11.5

12.1.X 7.3

110

37

34

430 Order Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)

Family Hydrobatidae (storm petrels)

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 32 days old, wild, n=4

3.60

34.7

12.4

12.0.X 7.4

97

35

36

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 33 days old, wild, n=1

2.38

30.0

10.6

12.7.X 7.1

126

45

35

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 34 days old, wild, n=2

2.67

33.5

11.2

12.5.X 6.7

125

42

33

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 37 days old, wild, n=3

2.96

36.3

14.8

11.1.X 7.4

124

49

39

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 39 days old, wild, n=2

3.98

34.0

12.5

11.9.X 7.3

85

32

37

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 40 days old, wild, n=1

3.64

37.0

14.8

11.8.X 7.4

102

31

40

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 41 days old, wild, n=4

3.38

36.7

14.6

11.9.X 7.2

109

43

40

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 42 days old, wild, n=2

3.60

37.5

14.2

12.5.X 6.9

104

40

39

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 44 days old, wild, n=2

3.99

40.0

14.6

12.2.X 6.7

100

37

37

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 46 days old, wild, n=1

3.16

40.0

15.8

127

50

40

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 48 days old, wild, n=3

3.78

38.3

15.7

11.8.X 7.0

104

43

41

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 49 days old, wild, n=2

3.97

40.5

15.7

12.0.X 7.1

103

40

39

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 50 days old, wild, n=2

4.83

37.5

14.2

11.2.X 6.6

79

29

38

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 51 days old, wild, n=1

4.80

39.0

14.2

81

30

36

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 55 days old, wild, n=2

4.36

45.0

16.0

11.5.X 6.8

103

37

35

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 59 days old, wild, n=1

4.10

45.0

16.4

10.6.X 7.3

110

40

36

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 60 days old, wild, n=1

4.26

44.0

16.5

11.9.X 7.0

103

39

36

Oceanites oceanicus 267, nestling, 61 days old, wild, n=1

4.59

46.0

17.2

100

37

37

Oceanites oceanicus 292, mature, wild, n=30

4.02

49.3

17.0

11.8.X 6.4

125

43

35

431 Order Pelecanif ormes

Family Phaethontidae (tropic birds)

Phaethon rubicauda 119, red-tailed tropicbird, adult, wild, n=45

50.4*

Phaeton rubicauda 119, chick, wild, n=45

38.0*

Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)

Pelecanus onocrotalus 11, white pelican, eastern white pelican, adult, captive, n=6

2.55

41.5

13.9

163

55

34

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 145, am white pelican captive, n=10

2.30

39.0

13.0

166

52

33

Pelecanus occidentalis thagus 71, Chilean or Humboldt brown pelican, n=3

2.49

44.5

15.3

181

63

34

Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis 71, West Indian brown or brown pelican, n=3

2.84

39.3

13.0

139

46

33

Pelecanus occidentalis 105, 123, adult and juvenile, n=44 (66?)

2.66

45.5

12.7 × 6.7

171

Pelecanus occidentalis 25, 145, captive, n=5

2.70

46.0

14.5

14.2 × 7.8

168

53

32

Order Pelecaniformes

Family Phalacrocoracidae (cormorants)

Phalacrocorax carbo 71, 123 ♂, common or great cormorant, n=7

2.91

43.5

13.8

12.9 X 7.0x

151

47

32

Phalacrocorax carbo 71, 123 ♀, L X W sex not recorded, n=6

3.15

47.3

15.3

12.9 X 7.0x

152

49

32

Phalacrocorax (Leucocarbo) fuscescens 29, black-faced or white-breasted cormorant, fledgling, n=5

2.16

43.4

14.5

198

67

33

Phalacrocorax pelagicus 274, pelagic cormorant, wild, n=5

30.0

Phalacrocorax auritus 275, dbl. crested c’mrant, 4–6 wk, n=20

31.0

432 Order Pelecaniformes

Family Sulidae (boobies, gannets)

Genus Sula (boobies)

Sula bassana 71, 123, gannet, adult, captive n=2

2.64

41.0

14.0

12.1 × 6.8

156

51

33

Sula sula 119, red-footed booby, adult, wild, n=35

48.0a

Sula sula 119, chick, wild, n=35

44.0a

Sula sula 335, wild, Galapagos Islands, n=20

50.0

Sula granti 335, nazca booby, wild, Galapagos Islands, n=23

51.0

Sula leucogaster 118 ♂, brown booby, adult, wild, n=35

45.0a

Sula leucogaster 118 ♀, adult, breeding, wild n=35

45.0a

Sula leucogaster 118, immature, 77–95 days, wild n=35

40.0x

Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)

Fregata minor 119 ♂, great frigatebird, adult, wild, Tern Island, n=10

49.0*a

Fregata minor 119 ♀, adult, wild, Tern Island, n=10

52.0*a

Fregata minor 119, chick, wild, Tern Island, n=10

45.0x

Fregata minor 119 ♂, adult, Laysan Island wild, n=20

51.0a

Fregata minor 119 ♀, adult, wild, Laysan Island, n=20

52.0a

Fregata minor 119, chick, wild, Laysan Islandn=20

44.0x

Fregata minor 335, wild, Galapagos Islands, n=23

55.0

433 Order Ciconiiformes

Family Ardeidae (herons)

Ardea cinerea 62 ♂, grey or common heron, n=7,

2.49

40.0

13.2

12.6 × 7.8

161

53

33

Ardea purpurea 199, purple heron, adult,captive, n=4

2.49

42.9

12.9

14.5 × 8.2

172

52

30

Nycticorax nycticorax 145, black-crowned night heron, night heron captive, n=22

2.60

45.0

15.1

178

60

34

Nycticorax nycticorax 199, adult, captive, n=15,

2.84

45.4

14.0

14.2 × 8.7

160

50

31

Nycticorax nycticorax 199, young, captive, n=33,

2.90

44.6

13.4

14.2 × 8.7

154

45

30

Egretta garzetta 199, little egret, adult, captive, n=12,

2.87

50.0

12.4a

13.6 × 8.3

164

43

27

Egretta garzetta 199, young, captive, n=16,

2.75

48.3

10.6a

13.6 × 8.3

176

39

20

Bubulcus ibis 199, cattle egret, adult, captive, n=9,

2.88a

45.0

13.7a

14.2 × 8.4

158a

48a

31a

Bubulcus ibis 199, young, captive, n=7,

2.59a

46.4

11.1a

14.2 × 8.4

180a

43a

23a

Family Balaenicipitidae (shoebills)

Balaeniceps rex 97, shoebill, whalebird, adult, captive, n=2

1.70

38.1

10.4

224

61

27

Family Cathartidae (new world vultures)

Vultur gryphus 17, 123, Andean condor, >15 yr, captive, n=2

2.31

43.7

13.4

15.7 × 7.9

190

59

31

Vultur gryphus 70, adult, captive, n=9

2.40

42.0

13.5

175

57

32

Sarcoramphus papa 17, 123, king vulture, 2–15 yr, captive, n=6

2.60

42.7

14.4

14.0 × 7.5

166

56

34

Sarcoramphus papa 184, captive, n=2

3.50

43.0

123

Cathartes aura 25, 145, turkey vulture, captive, n=10

2.70

54.0

16.3

14.0 × 7.5

204

62

30

Cathartes aura 208, n=1

13.6 × 7.9

Cathartes aura 219, healthy, wild, n=4

49.8

434 Order Ciconiiformes

Family Cathartidae (new world vultures)

Cathartes aura 225, wild, n=14

3.92

47.8

14.9

140

44

31

Coragyps atratus 219, black vulture, Amer black vult, SY, n=21

49.8

Coragyps atratus 219, ASY, wild, n=23

49.8

Coragyps atratrus 225, wild, n=11

5.09

47.0

15.1

115

37

32

Order Ciconiiformes

Family Ciconiidae (storks)

Ciconia ciconia 46 white stork, adult, wild, free-living, n=7

2.59a

44.1a

13.9a

172

54

31

Ciconia ciconia 46, 47, nestling chicks, 15–55 days, n=23

1.87a

36.2a

11.1a

226

70

32

Ciconia ciconia 47, nestling chicks, 15–40 days, n=13

1.69a

33.4a

10.9a

231

74

33

Ciconia ciconia 47, nestling chicks, 40–55 days, n=10

2.12a

40.0a

12.3a

220

64

30

Ciconia ciconia 82, nestlings, wild, <12 days, n=31

1.16a

25.1a

10.2a

226a

90a

40a

Ciconia, ciconia 82, nestlings, wild, 17–32 days, n=25

1.49a

34.6a

11.0a

233a

73a

31a

Ciconia, ciconia 82, nestlings, wild, 44–56 days, n=23

2.19a

40.1a

12.7a

190a

57a

31a

Ciconia ciconia 82, chicks, reared <1 week, n=7

1.14b

25.0b

9.2b

220b

82b

36b

Ciconia, ciconia 82, chicks reared, 15 days, n=6

1.22b

32.0b

11.4b

263b

91b

35b

Ciconia, ciconia 82, chicks, reared, 30 days, n=6

1.59b

36.1b

11.6b

226b

74b

32b

Ciconia, ciconia 82, chicks, reared, 45 days, n=6

1.87b

41.5b

12.9b

222b

68b

31b

Ciconia, ciconia 82, reared, 90 days, n=6

1.84b

43.0b

13.1b

237b

71b

31b

Ciconia, ciconia 82, >90 days but <1yr, healthy, n=19

2.20

41.2

14.2

192

63

33

435 Ciconia ciconia 145, captive, n=16

2.40

45.0

15.9

189

67

35

Ciconia nigra 221, black stork, nestlings, 25–53 days old, n=36

1.61

32.3

10.5

206

67

32

Ciconia nigra 47, black stork, nestlings, 59–68 days old, n=7

2.17

41.8

11.5

197

55

30

Ciconia maguari 145, maguari stork, captive, n=5

2.30

46.0

16.1

195

69

35

Leptoptilos crumeniferus 145, marabou stork, captive, n=8

2.30

47.0

15.8

202

67

34

Gymnogyps californianus 179, California condor, age 1–30 days

26.2ab

Gymnogyps californianus 179, age 1–6 months

33.3ab

Gymnogyps californianus 179, age 6 mo-5yr (subadult)

41.9a

Gymnogyps californianus 179, age >5yr (adult)

44.0b

Gymnogyps californianus 179, age <6 mo, n=34

31.5

Gymnogyps californianus 179, age ≥6 mo, n=61

42.9

Mycteria leucocephala 316 ♂, painted stork, adult, captive, n =5

3.79*

43.6

17.8

117*

48

41

Mycteria leucocephala 316 ♀, adult, captive, n =5

2.68*

41.2

17.5

162*

69

43

Family Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills)

Geronticus eremita 38, northern bald ibis, waldrapp ibis, captive @ Bireçik, (on Euphrates River), Turkey, n=11

2.80–3.33

38–50

11.1–15.2

Geronticus eremita 38, captive, Island of Jersey, British Channel Isles, UK, n=27

2.40–3.80

38–48

12.3–15.1

Geronticus eremita 189, captive, adult, n=∼54♂, ∼36 ♀

47.7a

Geronticus eremita 189, captive, young, 1–2 yr old, n=12

44.4a

Threskiornis molucca 145, Australian white ibis, white ibis, sheep bird, captive, n=8

3.0

48.0

18.2

159

61

38

Plegadis ridgwayi 191, puna ibis, captive, 5–23 yr old, n=11–14

3.00

42.0

16.4

140

55

39

436 Order Ciconiiformes

Family Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills)

Plegadis falcinellus 199, glossy ibis, ibis cara oscura, adult, n=12

3.53

49.9

17.1

14.5 × 8.3

142

49

34

Eudocimus ruber 145, scarlet ibis, captive, n=15

3.20

49.0

15.3

153

49

32

Platalea leucorodia 199, Eurasian/common spoonbill, adult, n=24

2.97

46.4

15.9

14.9 × 8.6

157

54

34

Order Phoenicopteriformes (Flamingos)

Family Phoenicopteridae (flamingos)

Phoenicopterus chilensis 9, Chilean flamingo, 2–3mo chicks, captive, n=10

1.92

33.0

9.4

179

51

29

Phoenicopterus chilensis 9, 8–9mo juveniles, captive, n=7

2.65

47.0

14.1

180

53

30

Phoenicopterus chilensis 9, 12mo subadults, captive, n=8

2.91

54.0

15.7

186

54

29

Phoenicopterus chilensis 9, adult, >18mo, captive, n=24

2.69

46.0

16.2

171

61

36

Phoenicopterus chilensis 202, adult, captive, n=32

2.84

46.0

16.9

15.2 × 8.0

164

56

35

Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis 16 ♂, greater or Chilean flamingo, adult, captive, n=13

2.70*

42.3*

13.1

157

50*

32*

Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis 16 ♀, adult, captive, n=12

3.25*

46.6*

13.1

157

43*

29*

Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis 16, young, sexually immature, <1yr, n=2

2.88

45.0

15.8

155

55

35

Phoenicopterus ruber roseus 16 ♂, greater or pink flamingo, adult, captive, n=2

2.32

41.7

14.3

181

62

34

Phoenicopterus ruber roseus 202, adult, captive, n=7

2.88

49.0

18.0

14.5 × 8.3

173

59

37

Phoenicopterus r. roseus 222, free-living, 1–2.5 mo old, n=28

2.02*

29.9*

12.6

150*

64

43*

437 Phoenicopterus r. roseus 222, captive, 5 mo old, n=10

2.36*

43.2*

14.2

187*

58

33*

Phoenicopterus r. roseus 222, captive, adult, n=32

2.39

45.0

13.5

189

57

30

Phoenicopterus roseus 10, greater flamingo, captive, adult, n=24

2.70

50.0

18.5

188

69

37

Phoenicopterus ruber ruber 27, American, Caribbean or rosy flamingo, 2mo–21yr, captive, n=25

1.48

47.9

13.4

327

92

28

Phoenicopterus ruber ruber 41 ♂, adult, captive, n=21

2.50

46.0

16.7

185

67

36

Phoenicopterus ruber ruber 41 ♀, adult, captive, n=15

2.64

49.0

17.4

184

66

36

Phoenicopterus ruber ruber 41 juvenile, <1yr, captive, n=6

1.82a

36.0a

10.5a

203

58

29a

Phoenicopterus ruber ruber 202, adult, captive, n=15

2.39

46.0

15.4

14.8 × 8.2

193

64

33

Phoenicopterus ruber 212 ♂, adult, healthy, n=9

2.27

35.2

11.8

33

Phoeniconaias minor 10, lesser or African dwarf flamingo, adult, captive, n=10

2.70

50.0

16.8

188

62

33

Phoeniconaias minor 202, adult, captive, n=2

2.24

45.0

15.4

15.1 × 8.1

202

68

34

Order Anseriformes (Ducks, Geese and Swans)

Family Anatidae

Genus Cygnus (swans)

Cygnus olor 137 ♂, mute swan, adult, n=127

40.3

14.0

35

Cygnus olor 137 ♀, adult, n=101

39.3

13.3

34

Cygnus olor 137 ♂, adult, acute lead poisoning, n=3

31.5

9.7

31

Cygnus buccinator 227 ♂, trumpeter swan, 3–4 months old, n=6

37.3a

Cygnus buccinator 227 ♀, 3–4 months old, captive-raised, n=8

33.7a

Cygnus buccinator 227 ♂, 5–6 months old, n=6

44.9b

Cygnus buccinatlor 227 ♀, 5–6 months old, n=8

45.7b

Cygnus buccinatlor 227 ♂, 7–8 months old, n=3

41.3b

Cygnus buccinator 227 ♀, 7–8 months old, n=3

47.7b

438 Order Anseriformes (Ducks, Geese and Swans)

Family Anatidae

Genus Anser (field geese)

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, domesticated breed of Anser anser, grelag goose, 1wk gosling, n=10

24.7

6.7

27

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 1wk gosling, n=10

24.4

6.6

27

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 4wk gosling, n=10

37.7

9.8

26

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 4wk gosling, n=10

36.2

97

27

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 8wk gosling, n=10

38.0

11.3

30

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 8wk gosling, n=10

38.3

11.5

30

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 12wk gosling, n=10

40.1

12.4

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 12wk gosling, n=10

40.3

12.5

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 16wk gosling, n=10

44.6

13.7

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 16wk gosling, n=10

43.6

13.4

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 20wk gosling, n=10

47.5

14.4

30

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 20wk gosling, n=10

47.1

14.2

30

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 34wk, n=10

47.9

15.0

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 34wk, n=10

46.7

14.7

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 43wk adult, n=10

49.7*

15.7*

32

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 43wk adult, n=10

39.5*

12.7*

32

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 50wk adult, n=10

49.4*

15.6*

32

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 50wk adult, n=10

36.4*

10.4*

29

Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 55wk adult, n=10

42.1*

12.9*

31

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 55wk adult, n=10

37.2*

10.7*

29

439Pilgrim goose33 ♂, 59wk adult, n=10

40.8

13.0*

32

Pilgrim goose33 ♀, 59wk adult, n=10

40.1

12.0*

30

Anser albifrons 130, white-fronted goose, lead-poisoned, n=9

30.4

4.9

18

Anser albifrons 130, after chelation treatment, wild, Japan n=9

36.0

6.8

21

Anser albifrons gambelli 70, tule white-fronted goose, n=10

2.90

43.0

15.0

148

52

35

Anser domesticus 70, embden goose, n=≥20

2.60

38.0

11.4

146

46

31

Genus Branta (sea geese)

Branta canadensis leucopareia 70, Aleutian Canada goose, n∼25

2.60

42.0

13.2

162

49

31

Branta canadensis 96 ♂, Canada goose, adult, 1yr study, n=10

1.98

45.1

14.1

228

71

31

Branta canadensis 96 208 ♀, adult, 1yr study, n=10

2.06

46.0

14.4

13.8 × 6.7

223

70

31

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♂, giant Can goose, Jan, n=10

2.62

51.0

16.2

197

62

32

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♂, adult, Mar, pre-nesting, n=10

2.70x

52.0

17.1x

194

64

33x

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♂, adult, June, post-nesting, n=10

2.16c

46.0

13.8c

209

64

31c

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♂, adult, Oct, fall, n=10

2.32c

45.0

13.5c

200

59

29c

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♀, adult, Jan, winter, n=7

2.75

51.0

16.2

188

59

32

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♀, adult, Mar, pre-nesting, n=7

2.88x

52.0

17.1x

181

60

33x

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♀, adult, June, post-nesting, n=7

2.20c

46.0

14.2c

211

65

31c

Branta canadensis maxima 93 ♀, adult, Oct, fall, n=7

2.28c

45.0

13.7c

198

60

31c

Branta sandvicensis 70, nene or Hawaiian goose, n=17

2.60

46.0

15.5

177

60

34

Chen caerulescens 96 ♂, snow goose, adult, 1yr study, n=10

2.24

45.6

14.2

204

63

31

Chen caerulescens 96 ♀, adult, 1yr study, n=10

2.25

46.1

14.6

205

65

32

Chen caerulescens 96 ♂, blue goose, adult, 1yr study, n=10

2.26

46.6

14.7

206

65

32

Chen caerulescens 96 ♀, adult, 1yr study, n=10

2.24

45.8

13.8

204

62

30

Chen caerulescens 96, blue goose, adult, Jan, n=11

2.49

45.8

15.0

184

60

33

440 Order Anseriformes (Ducks, Geese and Swans)

Family Anatidae

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Feb, n=11

2.38

46.1

16.6

194

70

36

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Mar, n=5

2.91

48.8

15.1

168

52

31

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Apr, n=10

2.63

52.8

14.0

201

53

27

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, May, n=10

2.42

54.8

16.6

226

69

30

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, June, n=12

2.72

48.2

14.8

177

54

31

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, July, n=10

2.22

43 9

14.3

198

64

33

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Aug, n=14

2.11

42.4

12.6

201

60

30

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Sept, n=11

1.77

42.4

13.4

240

76

32

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Oct, n=10

2.26

40.5

13.5

179

60

33

Chen caerulescens 96, adult, Nov, n=9

1.88

38.9

14.2

207

76

37

Genus Alopchen

Alopochen aegyptiacus 61, Egyptian goose, n=4♂, 4♀

3.17

43.8

15.0

13.2 × 7.5

138

47

34

Genus Anas (a genus of surface feeding ducks)

Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos 56 ♂, mallard, adult captive, breeding plumage, n=7

3.02

38.5

16.7

12.5 × 6.8

128

55

43

Anas p.platyrhynchos 56 ♂, adult, captive, pre-basic moult, n=5

2.63

41.2

15.1

12.9 × 7.1

157

57

37

Anas p.platyrhynchos 56 ♂, adult, captive, remige development (after remige moult), n=5

2.48a

33.9a

12.0a

12.4 × 6.6

137

48

35

Anas p.platyrhynchos 56 ♂, adult, captive, definitve basic plumage following moulting season, n=7

2.45a

39.2a

13.4a

13.2 × 6.2

160

55

34

441 Anas p.platyrhynchos 56 ♂, adult, wild, definitive basic plumage following moulting season, n=5

1.92

40.1

13.8

12.9 × 6.8

209

72

34

Anas p.platyrhynchos 98, adult, captive, tame, n=3♂, 5♀

3.06

15.6

11.2 × 6.7

51

Anas platyrhynchos 238 ♂, 52–80 wk old, Nigerian local, n=7

1.83

36.9

21.3

206

119

58

Anas platyrhynchos 238 ♀, 52–80 wk old, Nigerian local, n=7

1.89

36.3

23.0

198

125

51

Anas platyrhynchos 244 ♂, adult, Nigerian local, n=13

2.54

49.2

14.4

202

59

30

Anas platyrhynchos 244 ♀, adult, Nigerian local, n=15

2.40

48.3

14.9

211

65

31

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♂, adult, Jan, winter, n=4

3.23

50.0

15.9

156c

50

32c

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♂, adult, Mar, pre-nesting, n=4

3.53x

51.0x

15.2x

145x

43x

30x

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♂, adult, July, post-nesting, n=4

1.78c

38.0c

10.6c

218c

62c

28

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♂, adult, Oct, fall, n=4

2.74c

46.0c

13.0c

178c

51c

29

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♀, adult, Jan, winter, n=7

3.42

49.0

15.4

144c

46

32c

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♀, adult, Mar, pre-nesting, n=7

3.81x

49.0x

15.0x

130x

39x

30x

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♀, adult, July, post-nesting, n=7

2.14c

40.0c

11.9c

189c

56c

30

Anas p. platyrhynchos 93 ♀, adult, Oct, fall, n=7

2.38c

45.0c

13.8c

192c

59c

31

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus 255, desi breed, 1 day old, n=32

1.96

31.9

9.7

161

50

30

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus 255, desi breed, 1 mo old, n=32

2.19

31.9

10.7

146

49

34

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus 255, desi breed, 3 mo old, n=32

2.36

38.2

10.9

162

46

29

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus 255 ♂, adult, desi breed, n=32

2.92*

40.7*

13.3*

140*

45*

33

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus 255 ♀, adult, non-laying, n=32

2.42*

38.1*

12.3*

159*

51*

33

Anas platyrhynchos 123, n=8

12.0 × 6.7

Anas platyrhynchos 208, wild, n=2

13.1 × 6.6

Anas platyrhynchos 128 ♀, mallard ducks, control, n=10

2.88*

31*

Anas platyrhynchos 128 ♀, day 8 post oral lead shot, n=10

2.52*

25*

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 1, n=4

2.83

12.0

42

442 Order Anseriformes (Ducks, Geese and Swans)

Family Anatidae

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 15, n=4

2.86

12.4

43

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 30, n=4

2.83

12.2

43

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 50, n=4

3 04

12.8

42

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 93, n=4

2.88

12.5

43

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 113, n=4

3.06

12.5

41

Anas platyrhynchos 134, control, day 153, n=4

3.20

12.4

39

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 1, n=4

2.93

12.0

41

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 15, n=4

2.07

8.9

43

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 30, n=4

1.91

9.7

51

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 50, n=4

2.33

10.1

43

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 93, n=4

2.34

9.1

39

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 113, n=4

2.39

10.1

42

Anas platyrhynchos 134, 1 Pb shot every third day, day 153, n=4

2.26

10.0

44

Anas platyrhynchos 135, ♂, adult mallard, baseline, n=9

∼2.6

∼46

∼15.0

180

56

31

Anas platyrhynchos 135,♂, 8 #6 lead shot, ∼day 25, n=8

∼1.9

∼29

∼6.1

150

30

20

Anas platyrhynchos 136,♂, 1yr old, control, n=10

42.5

13.4

32

Anas platyrhynchos 136,♂, 1yr old, Pb x 98 days, n=13

21.5

4.7

22

White Pekin duck breed79 ♂, Anas platyrhynchos, adult, n=5

42.8

12.9

30

White Pekin duck234 ♂, 8 mo old, in Nigeria, captive, n=11

2.87

43.6*

15.1*

154*

54*

35

White Pekin duck234 ♀, 8 mo old, in Nigeria, captive, n=7

2.80

36.4*

11.9*

132*

43*

33

White Pekin duck248, 4–7 weeks old, n=22

2.17

10.5

48

443White Pekin duck248, 3 mo-1yr old, n=47

2.52

Anas undulata 62, yellow-bill duck, n=9♂, 8♀

3.17

40.7

13.4

12.5 × 7.4

129

42

33

Anas erythrorhyncha 62, red-bill teal/pintail, n=8♂, 8♀

3.52

44.6

14.0

12.5 × 7.5

127

40

31

Anas superciliosa 78 ♂, gray duck, captive, wild, n=8

2.79

40.0

12.9

143

46

32

Anas superciliosa 78 ♀, Australian black duck, n=9

2.77

40.4

13.0

146

47

32

Anas rubripes 263, American black duck,

2.78

40.2

13.0

145

47

32

Dabbling versus Diving ducks24, 208 comparison

Dabbling ducks: Anas platyrhynchos & Anas rubripes, n=7

3.6

43.0

18.0

12.5 × 6.0

119

50

42

Diving ducks: Aytha valisineria & Aythya americana, n=6

3.2

37.0

18.0

116

56

49

Desi breed141, 8 wk old, intensive manage., n=5

2.12

28.8

13.3

138

63

46

Desi breed141, 16 wk old, intensive manage., n=5

2.30

31.0

14.7

134

64

48

Khaki Campbell breed141, 8 wk old, intensive manage., n=5

2.47

31.5

13.0*

129*

54

41*

Khaki Campbell breed 141, 16 wk old, intensive manage., n=5

3.11

33.0

16.8*

106*

54

51*

Khaki Campbell breed 256 ♂, 8 months old, n=7

3.05

12.8

13.4 × 8.6

42

Khaki Campbell breed 256 ♀, 8 months old, n=13

2.99

12.5

13.4 × 8.6

42

Domestic duck224 ♂, mixed breeds, in India, adult, n=12

3.02

40.2

13.8

12.1 × 6.5

133

46

34

Domestic duck224 ♀, mixed breeds, in India, adult, laying, n=12

2.76

38.0

12.2

12.1 × 6.5

138

44

32

Genus Aythya (a genus of diving ducks)

Diving and dabbling ducks24 comparison: see Anas section

Aythya ferina 71, 123, pochard, European pochard, n=2♂, 2♀

3.25

43.7

14.6

12.5 × 6.6

134

45

34

Aythya valisineria 80 ♂, canvasback duck, wild, n=26

2.56

51.4

13.4 × 6.6

201

Aythya valisineria 80 ♀, wild, n=28

2.56

53.1

12.7 × 6.6

207

444 Order Anseriformes (Ducks, Geese and Swans)

Family Anatidae

Aythya valisineria 81 ♂, migrating south, wild, n=8

2.63

55.0

16.6

209

63

30

Aythya valisineria 81 ♀, migrating south, wild, n=8

2.87

58.0

16.5

202

57

28

Aythya valisineria 81 ♂, mid-wintering, wild, n=9

2.99

56.0

17.4

187

58

31

Aythya valisineria 81 ♀, mid-wintering, wild, n=29

2.96

55.0

16.7

186

56

30

Aythya valisineria 81 ♂, late-wintering, wild, n=18

3.09

52.0

15.6

168

50

30

Aythya valisineria 81 ♀, late-wintering, wild, n=11

3.28

54.0

15.5

165

47

29

Aythya valisineria 81, ducklings 26–65 days old, wild, n=50

44.3

Aythya valisineria 81, mixed sex, migrating, wild, n=16

2.75

56.4

16.6

205

60

29

Aythya valisineria 81, mixed sex, wintering, wild, n=71

3.04

54.2

16.3

178

54

30

Aythya affinis 80 ♂, lesser scaup, wild, n=21

2.40

56.5

12.6 × 7.7

235

Aythya affinis 80 ♀, wild, n=9

2.52

58.0

13.3 × 7.2

230

Aythya affinis 263

2.84

47.0

16.0

165

56

34

Aythya affinis 263

2.45

57.1

233

Aythya collaris 80, ring-neck duck, wild, n=2♂, 1♀

2.50

49.1

196

Aytha collaris 263

2.54

47.0

14.3

185

56

30

Aytha americana 206, redhead duck, wild, n=10♂, n= 1♀

3.36

18.2

54

Aytha americana 263

2.78

44.0

13.5

158

49

31

Aytha marila 206, greater scaup, wild, n=9♂, n= 7♀

3.08

17.8

58

Aytha marila 263

2.27

43.0

15.9

189

70

37

445Diving ducks assortment93 ♂, adult, Jan, winter, n=5

2.80

49.0

15.4

176

56

32

Diving ducks assortment93 ♂, adult, Mar, pre-nesting, n=5

2.49

44.0

14.7

178

60

33

Diving ducks assortment93 ♂, adult, July, post-nesting, n=5

1.97

42.0

12.5

215

64

30

Diving ducks assortment93 ♂, adult, Oct, fall, n=5

2.12

42.0

14.6

205

61

35

Diving ducks assortment93 ♀, adult, Jan, winter, n=9

3.07

48.0

15.2

160

51

32

Diving ducks assortment93 ♀, adult, Mar, pre-nesting, -n=9

2.81

48.0

14.8

171

54

31

Diving ducks assortment93 ♀, adult, July, post-nesting, n=9

2.45

46.0

15.2

190

63

33

Diving ducks assortment93 ♀, adult, Oct, fall, n=9

2.24

42.0

14.0

188

64

34

Plectropterus gambensis 62 ♂, spur-wing goose, n=4

2.76

42.3

13.5

12.9 × 7.8

153

49

32

Chenonetta jubata 109 ♂, wood duck, maned duck, n=9

2.88

45.8

14.7

160

51

32

Chenonetta jubata 109 ♀, n=6, wild,

2.59

45.0

15.7

174

60

35

Chenonetta jubata 263

2.79

45.5

15.0

164

54

33

Bucephala albeola 80, bufflehead, wild, n=2♂, 1♀

2.64

54.3

206

Oxyura punctata 62, maccoa duck, n=5♂, 5♀

3.12

37.9

15.1

12.3 × 6.2

121

48

39

Oxyura jamaicensis 263, ruddy duck

2.30

43.0

14.6

187

63

34

Melanitta fusca 323, white-winged scoter, day 12 of care, n=10

2.59a

32.1a

8.2a

124

32

26

Melanitta fusca 323, day 26 of care, post oil exposure, n=10

3.46a

41.5a

12.3a

120

36

30

Order Falconiformes (Raptors)

Family Accipitridae (hawks and eagles)

Rostrhamus sociabilis sociabilis 70, S. amer snail kite, n=10

2.80

42.0

14 0

150

50

33

Milvus migrans 17, 123, black kite, 4–6 yr, captive, n=3

2.39

36.2

10.7

14.2 × 8.0

151

45

30

Milvus migrans parasitus 148, African black kite, captive, n=6

1.93

40.4

20.3

209

105

50

Milvus migrans 309, captive, adult, n=13

44.0

446 Order Falconiformes (Raptors)

Family Accipitridae (hawks and eagles)

Genus Accipiter (goshawks)

Accipiter cooperii 21, 25 ♂, Cooper’s hawk, adult, migrating, n ≥8

3.65

50.0

14.3 × 8.1

137

Accipiter cooperii 21, 25 ♀, adult, wild, migrating, n ≥6

4.10

49.8

14.3 × 8.1

121

Accipiter cooperii 21 ♂, immature, wild, migrating n ≥7

3.38

49.6

147

Accipiter cooperii 21 ♀, immature, wild, migrating n ≥7

3.89

47.4

122

Accipiter cooperii 294, wild, migrating, mixed age and sex, n=24

52.0

Accipiter striatus 21 ♂, sharp-shinned hawk, adult, wild, migrating, n ≥6

3.73

50.7

136

Accipiter striatus 21 ♀, adult, wild, migrating n ≥6

3.58

49.7

139

Accipiter striatus 294, wild, migrating, mixed age and sex, n=48

52.0

Accipiter gentilis 184, 208 northern goshawk, captive n=4

2.83

43.3

12.5 × 6.2

146

33

Genus Buteo (buzzards or buteos)

Buteo buteo 17, 123, buzzard or common buzzard, 2–4 yr, n=5

2.43

34.7

10.8

14.3 × 7.5

148

45

31

Buteo buteo 145, captive, n=6

2.40

38.0

12.9

159

54

34

Buteo buteo 198, adult, captive, n=23

2.94

40.8

12.7

145

48

32

Buteo buteo 304, captive, adult, n=23

41.0

Buteo jamaicensis 24, red-tailed hawk, immature, free-living, n=3

3.20

43.0

12.6

134

39

29

Buteo jamaicensis 26, red-tailed hawk, nestling (early), n=5

1.74

28.0

8.8

161

51

31

Buteo jamaicensis 26, red-tailed hawk, nestling (late), wild, n=5

2.35

33.0

11.0

140

47

33

447 Buteo jamaicensis 146, ≥4 yr of age, captive, n=10

2.45

39.4

161

Buteo jamaicensis 153, n=13

45.1

Circus aeruginosus 183 ♂, marsh harrier, Eurasian marsh harrier or western marsh harrier, adult, captive, n=9

2.78

49.3

13.8

13.8 × 8.0

181

47

28

Circus aeruginosus 183 ♀, adult, captive, n=4

2.69

49.3

14.8

13.5 × 7.9

190

58

30

Circus aeruginosus 228 ♂, nestlings 25–28 days old, n=10

35.3

Circus aeruginosus 228 ♀, nestlings 25–28 days old, n=9

34.1

Circus pygargus 304, Montagu’s harrier, captive, adult, n=5

42.0

Neophron percnopterus 145, Egyptian vulture, captive, n=4

2.30

43.0

14.8

190

68

35

Neophron percnopterus 193, pharaoh’s chicken, captive, n=5

2.30

42.5

13.7

15.1 × 7.9

188

60

32

Neophron percnopterus 346, captive, adult & subadult, n=19

2.19

Neophron percnopterus 346, captive, winter, n=15

42.5

Neophron percnopterus 346, captive, spring, n=9

50.3

Stephanoaetus coronatus 17, crowned eagle, 4–6 yr, captive, n=1

2.18

38.5

12.4

177

57

32

Genus Aquila

Aquila heliaca 17, imperial eagle, 4–6 yr, captive n=1

2.54

36.0

13.1

142

52

36

Aquila heliaca adalberti 304, Spanish imp eagle, cptv. adult, n=2

40.0

Aquila chrysaetos 17, 123, golden eagle 10–12 mo, captive, n=2

2.51

40.0

12.0

14.3 × 7.7

160

48

30

Aquila chrysaetos 193, mature, captive, n=5

2.56

42.1

13.8

14.7 × 8.2

168

44

33

Aquila chrysaetos 145, captive, n=4

2.40

41.0

13.8

174

59

34

Aquila chrysaetos 214, wild in Iran, adult, n=12♂, 9♀

1.63

47.0

9.2

288

56

20

Aquila adalberti 193, Spanish imperial or adalbert’s eagle, n=12

2.41

43.7

13.6

14.9 × 8.0

180

57

31

Aquila adalberti 210, adult, captive, n=6♂, 6♀

2.19

43.0

14.8

200

68

34

448 Order Falconiformes (Raptors)

Family Accipitridae (hawks and eagles)

Aquila rapax 62 ♂, tawny eagle, n=3

2.43

34.0

13.8

14.3 × 7.7

141

57

41

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 26, bald or American eagle, nestling, ∼8 wk, n=10

34.0

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 26, adult, captive, n=8

43.0

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 36, normal: <0.02 μg Pb/mL blood, n=54

43.2

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 36, exposed to Pb, ≥0.20 but < 0.60μg Pb/mL blood, n=6

39.8

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 131, captive, control, adultpre-dose, n=5

45.0x

15.3x

34

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 131, day 1 post oral Pb shot, n=5

41.0

13.5

33

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 131, day 3 post oral Pb shot, n=5

40.0

13 4

34

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 131, day 7 post oral Pb shot, n=5

34.0a

11.0a

32

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 131, day 14 post oral Pb shot, n=3

32.0a

10.7a

33

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 305, nestlings, in the wild, n=52

32.0

11.8

37

Gyps fulvus 17, 123, griffon vulture, 4–6 yr captive, n=6

2.90

45.3

14.0

14.0 × 7.5

163

51

31

Gyps fulvus 193, mature, captive, n=12

2.63

45.5

15.1

14.1 × 7.7

170

55

32

Gyps fulvus 301, captive, adult, n=14

43.0

Pseudogyps (Gyps) africanus 295, African white-backed

1.39

41.8

13.8

161

57

34

vulture, nestlings, wild, n=33

99

33

Above data applied to Winttrobe formulas

301

449 Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 94, osprey, n=1

13.5 × 7.4

Aegypius monachus 204, black vulture, free-living nestlings, n=53

31.9a

Aegypius monachus 204, Eurasian vulture, free-living adults, n=7

49.5ab

Aegypius monachus 204, captive first year young, n=7

40.1

Aegypius monachus 204, cinereous vulture, captive adults, n=5

39.4b

Hieraaetus pennatus 304, booted eagle, captive, adult, n=4

43.0

Hieraaetus fasciatus 304, Bonneli’s eagle, captive, adult, n=3

48.0

Family Falconidae (falcons)

Genus Falco (true falcons)

Falco peregrinus 2, peregrine falcon, captive, n=48

3.49

40.0

14.8

118

42

37

Falco peregrinus 37, nestling, 15–27 days-old, wild, free, n =28

2.17

37.6

21.0

179

100

57

Falco peregrinus 142, clinically normal, n =138

3.18

44.0

14.7

138

46

33

Falco peregrinus tundrius 70, arctic peregrine falcon, n=9

3.10

42.0

14.5

135

46

34

Falco rusticolus 242 ♀, gyr falcon, adult, captive bred, n =187

3.23

45.0

15.0

139

46

33

Falco rusticolus 276 ♀, wild-caught captive, adult, healthy, n=25

3.91

51.4

18.9

14.8 x 7.2

136

49

36

Falco rusticolus x Falco peregrinus hybrid242 clin normal, n =267

3.35

46.0

15.3

137

46

33

Falco cherrug 1 ♀, saker falcon, 9mo-2.5 yr, captive, n=25

2.65

47.0

15.9

183

61

33

Falco cherrug 242, clinically normal, n=146

3.18

45.0

15.0

142

47

33

Falco tinnunculus 39, European kestrel, 8mo - >3 yr, captive, n=18

45.9

17.3

38

Falco tinnunculus 304, captive, adult, n=4

48.0

Falco tinnuncuhis 312, captive, adult, in China, n=16

2.47

39.9

12.5

13.2 × 7.3

169

52

31

450 Order Falconiformes (Raptors)

Family Falconidae (falcons)

Falco sparverius 40 ♂, American kestrel, sparrow hawk, wild, winter 1975–76, n=14

52.7a

Falco sparverius 40 ♂, wild, fall 1976, n=6

49.3a

Falco sparverius 40 ♀, wild, winter 1975–76, n=18

52.2b

Falco sparverius 40 ♀, wild, spring 1976, n=3

45.3b

Falco sparverius 40 ♂, winter 1975–76, n=14

52.7

Falco sparverius 40 ♀, winter 1975–76, n=18

52.2

Falco sparverius 40 ♂, wild, fall 1976, n=6

49.3

Falco sparverius 40 ♀, wild, fall 1976, n=7

50.2

Falco sparverius 60, 5–8 days old, captive, n=10

1.55

44.0

8.7

286

57

20

Falco sparverius 60, 11–12 days old, captive, n=8

1.86

44.0

9.7

239

53

22

Falco sparverius 60, 15–17 days old, captive, n=10

2.15

45.0

10.7

212

50

24

Falco sparverius 60, 18–26 days old, captive, n=10

2.58

40.0

10.8

157

43

27

Falco sparverius 60, 27–35 days old, captive, n=9

2.97

48.0

13.0

162

44

28

Falco sparverius 60, 42 days old, captive, n=5

3.10

46.0

13.7

150

44

30

Falco sparverius 60, 84 days old, captive, n=10

3.33

43.0

12.8

131

39

29

Falco sparverius 60, adult, n=43

3.35

45.0

13.9

134

42

30

Falco sparverius 129 ♂, adult, normal diet, pen-reared, n=12

43.0

13.1

30

Falco sparverius 129 ♀, adult, normal diet, pen-reared, n=12

43.0

13.0

30

Falco sparverius 132, control, 10 days post-hatch, n=10

34.1a

8.6a

25

Falco sparverius 132, 25mg/kg Pb, 1st 10 days post-hatch, n=10

30.9ab

7.6b

25

451 Falco sparverius 132, 125mg/kg Pb, 1st 10 days post-hatch, n=10

29.3b

6.3c

22

Falco sparverius 132, 625mg/kg Pb, 1st 10 days post-hatch, n=10

23.4c

4.5d

19

Falco sparverius 25, 147, captive, adult, n=10♂, 10 ♀

3.22

33.4

11.8 × 7.3

104

Falco sparverius 147, captive, juvenile, n=10♂, 10♀

3.17

33.8

107

Falco sparverius 147, captive, in colonial pen =10♂, 10♀

3.29a

34.9a

106

Falco sparverius 147, captive, paired, breeding pen, n=10♂, 10 ♀

3.10a

32.3a

104

Falco sparverius 268 ♂, wild, breeding period, pre-laying, n=82

47.9

Falco sparverius 268 ♀, wild, breeding period, pre-laying, n=111

48.8

Falco sparverius 268 ♂, wild, breeding period, incubation, n=146

48.5

Falco sparverius 268 ♀, wild, breeding period, incubation, n=193

49.0

Falco sparverius 269 ♂, wild, nestlings, 24 days old, n=85

40.0.

Falco sparverius 269 ♀, wild, nestlings, 24 days old, n=84

40.2

Falco sparverius 334 ♂, caged, indoors, winter maximum, n=20

50.9a

Falco sparverius 334 ♂, caged, summer minimum, n=20

30.1a

Falco sparverius 334 ♀, caged, indoors, winter maximum, n=20

47.9a

Falco sparverius 334 ♀, caged, summer minimum, n=20

29.1a

Falco rupicoloides 62, African or greater kestrel, n=2♂, 4♀

2.81

44.3

14.1

13.1 × 7.4

158

50

32

Falco biarmicus 62, lanner falcon, n=5♂, 4♀

3.48

46.0

16.5

12.8 × 7.8

133

48

36

Falco punctatus 95 ♀, Mauritius falcon, adult, n=2

2.55

40.0

11.5

157

45

29

Falco punctatus 95, juvenile, n=2

2.26

41.5

11.5

184

51

28

Falcons diseased with clostridiosis242, n=15

2.19

32.0

10.7

146

49

33

Falcons infected with herpes virus242, n=7

2.46

37.0

12.3

150

50

33

Falcons infected with viral diseases242, n=35

2.84

40.0

13.3

141

47

33

Polyborus plancus 145, caracara, crested caracara, captive, n=9

2.80

46.0

16.2

165

58

35

Polyborus plancus 184, captive, n=2

3.10

48.0

155

452 Order Falconiformes (Raptors)

Family Sagittariidae (secretary birds)

Sagittarius serpentarius145, secretary bird, captive, n=4

2.18

46.0

16.7

208

77

37

Order Galliformes (Gallinaceous Birds, Game Birds)

Family Cracidae (curassows)

Crax globulosa 51, wattled curassow, captive, n=34–41

3.23

42.1

15.2

132

47

36

Crax globulosa 52, n=34–39

3.17

43.4

15.2

136

47

36

Crax globulosa 199, n=∼33

3.25

43.5

15.5

132

47

37

Penelope (obscura?) waglierii 23,123, dusky-legged guan, adult, n=4

2.68

39.7

13.1

11.1 × 6.8

148

49

33

Family Phasianidae

Coturnix coturnix japonica 20, Japanese quail, 2 wk, n=30

2.86a

41.1a

11.6a

144a

41a

28a

Coturnix coturnix japonica 20 ♂, adult, 10 wk, n=25

4.14*a

53.1*a

15.8*a

127a

39a

30a

Coturnix coturnix japonica 20 ♀, adult, non-laying hens, 10 wk, n=30

3.86*a

48.7*a

14.6*a

127a

38a

30a

Coturnix coturnix japonica 20 ♀, adult, laying hens, 18–20 wk, n=19

3.81*

46.9*

14.3*

124

38

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 84 ♂, adult, coulter, n=10

3.74

Coturnix coturnix japonica 84 ♂, adult, visual ct, n=10

3.60

Coturnix coturnix japonica 84 ♀, adult, coulter, n=10

2.84

Coturnix coturnix japonica 84 ♀, adult, visual ct, n=10

2.87

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 1 day, n=9

3.00*

30.0

10.7*

100

35*

36*

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 1 day, n=7

2.50*

30.0

7.6*

120

30*

25*

453 Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 2 days, n=10

2.90

26.0

9.4

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 2 days, n=8

2.50

22.0

8.3

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 4 days, n=11

3.10

26.0

8.4

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 4 days, n=8

3.00

24.0

8.7

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 8 days, n=6

3.10

34.0

11.6

109

35

35

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 8 days, n=11

2.80

35.0

11.0

100

35

31

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 10 days, n=9

3.20

28.0

11.0

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 10 days, n=11

3.10

24.0

11.7

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 15 days, n=5

3.40

38.0

10.4

111

31

27

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 15 days, n=5

3.60

38.0

10.8

113

30

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 19 days, n=6

3.60

33.0

9.6

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 19 days, n=5

3.60

33.0

9.9

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 22 days, n=4

3.60

36.0

9.2

100

26

26

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 22 days, n=6

3.60

36.0

10.7

100

31

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 26 days, n=6

3.80

34.0

10.4

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 26 days, n=5

4.20

39.0

11.5

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 29 days, n=5

5.20

41.0

12.0

107

23

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 29 days, n=6

4.30

37.0

11.0

86

26

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 33 days, n=5

4.60

43.0

13.3

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 33 days, n=6

3.70

40.0

12.3

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 36 days, n=6

4.80*

46.0

14.3

95

30

22

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 36 days, n=6

4.40*

43.0

12.9

97

25

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 43 days, n=6

5.10*

45.0*

14.5*

84

29

32

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 43 days, n=6

4.30*

40.0*

12.9*

90

30

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♂, 50 days, n=4

5.40*

42.0

15.3*

77

28

36

454 Order Galliformes (Gallinaceous Birds, Game Birds)

Family Phasianidae

Coturnix coturnix japonica 65 ♀, 50 days, n=7

4.10*

37.0

12.3*

82

27

33

Coturnix coturnix japonica 188 ♂, 4–5 mo, n=104–122

3.62*

49.0

13.6*

138

39

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 188 ♀, 4–5 mo, n=95–106

3.27*

43.0

11.8*

136

37

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, <1week, n=15

12.4x X 6.9

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, 3 weeks, n=15

10.9a X 6.7

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, 5 weeks, n=15

10.9a X 6.8

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, <1week, reticulocyte, n=15

8.7x X 7.5

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, 3 weeks, reticulocyte, n=15

9.7a X 7.2

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, 5 weeks, reticulocyte, n=15

9.6a X 7.7

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112 , ♂ >5 weeks, adult, n=15

11.1 × 6.8

Coturnix coturnix japonica 112, ♀ >5 weeks, adult, n=15

11.4 × 6.7

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 1 day old, n=8

3.03*

31.0

11.9*

103*

40

39*

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 1 day old, n=7

2.26*

30.0

8.1*

135*

37

27*

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 3 days old, n=8

2.61*

27.4

9.2*

106

35

34

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 3 days old, n=7

2.24*

24.3

7.8*

109

35

34

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 6 days old, n=8

2.94*

32.8

9.3

113

32

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 6 days old, n=8

2.51*

31.9

8.9

128

36

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 10 days old, n=7

3.19

33.3

12.4

106

39

37

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 10 days old, n=8

3.05

30.8

11.7

101

39

38

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 15 days old, n=6

3.37

33.2*

9.7

99

29

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 15 days old, n=8

3.60

37.3*

9.8

104

28

26

455 Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 20 days old, n=7

3.69

38.3

11.1*

105

30*

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 20 days old, n=8

3.75

38.0

10.1*

102

27*

27

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 25 days old, n=7

3.90

42.0*

14.2

108*

37

34

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 25 days old, n=8

4.04

39.0*

14.1

97*

35

36

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 30 days old, n=8

4.93*

42.3

12.4

86

25*

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 30 days old, n=6

4.15*

41.3

12.3

100

30*

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 35 days old, n=6

5.08*

45.3

14.2

88*

28

32

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 35 days old, n=7

4.36*

43.4

13.7

100*

32

32

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 45 days old, n=6

5.20*

42.8

16.3

82*

31

38

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 45 days old, n=7

4.39*

40.1

14.9

92*

34

37

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 50 days old, n=8

5.28*

41.8*

15.7*

79

30

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 50 days old, n=6

4.42*

38.2*

13.8*

88

32

35

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♂, 55 days old, n=7

5.63*

40.3

15.2

72*

27

38

Coturnix coturnix japonica 201 ♀, 55 days old, n=6

4.37*

37.3

13.1

86*

30

36

Coturnix coturnix japonica 279, ∼4 months old, n=19

3.40

43.5

13.3

11.9 × 6.7

128

39

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 251 ♂, 3 weeks old, control, n=15

3.25a

44.4a

12.9a

137

40

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 251 ♂, 3 wk, testostosterone, n=15

3.92a

50.4a

14.7a

129

38

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 251 ♂, 3 wk, stilbestrol, n=15

1.61a

24.0a

6.8a

151

43

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 251 ♀, 3 weeks old, control, n=15

3.19b

44.3b

13.1b

140

41

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 251 ♀, 3 wk, testostosterone, n=15

3.46

46.9

13.9

137

41

30

Coturnix coturnix japonica 251 ♀, 3 wk, stilbestrol, n=15

1.44b

21.0b

6.0b

148

42

29

Coturnix coturnix japonica 258, 5 wk old, corn-soya diet

3.33a

42.0a

10.9a

116a

33

29a

Coturnix c. japonica 258, 5 wk old, skim milk diet, low Fe, Cu

2.87a

22.0a

6.9a

97a

24

25a

Coturnix coturnix 62, African quail, n=5♂, 5♀

3.84

25.4

14.3

12.5 × 6.3

66

37

56

456 Order Galliformes (Gallinaceous Birds, Game Birds)

Family Phasianidae

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♂, 4 months old, baseline, n=11

4.21

48.7

15.3

116

36

31

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♂, 3 hr post-fenitrothion, n=11

3.98a

46.8

15.0

118a

38

32

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♂, 1 wk post-fenitrothion, n=11

3.75a

45.8a

13.9a

122a

37

30a

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♂, 3 wk post-fenitrothion, n=11

3.99

46.8

15.1

117

38

32

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♀, 4 months old, baseline, n=11

3.58

41.7

13.1

116

36

31

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♀, 3 hr post-fenitrothion, n=11

3.77

44.9

13.6

119a

36

30

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♀, 1 wk post-fenitrothion, n=11

3.42

41.8

13.2

122a

39a

32

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh282 ♀, 3 wk post-fenitrothion, n=11

3.47

40.9

12.2a

118a

35

30a

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♂, 4 months old, control, n=8

4.79

50.

16.4

106

34

32

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♂, 3 hr post-ekatin, n=10

3.68a

41.6a

12.3a

123

37

30

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♂, 1 wk post-ekation, n=10

3.79a

42.3a

13.7a

117

38

33

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♂, 3 wk post-kathin, n=10

4.74

52.8

15.2

106

35

29a

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♀, 4 months old, control, n=8

4.10

43.0

12.7

104

31

30

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♀, 3 hr post-ekatin, n=10

4.03

47.9a

12.6

122a

32

26a

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♀, 1 wk post-ekatin, n=10

4.08

48.1a

12.3

121

31

26a

Coturnix coturnix pharaoh283 ♀, 3 wk post-ekatin, n=10

3.54a

44.5

12.2

129a

35a

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 290, 6 mo old, contol, n=20

3.60a

44.0

12.3

126a

35

28

Coturnix c. japonica 290, 6 mo old, foschlor, n=19

3.09a

41.9

11.8

141a

39

26

Coturnix coturnix japonica 337 ♀, 45 days old, adequate diet, n=6

42.0

11.5

28

Coturnix coturnix japonica 337 ♀, 48 d, start laying, ad’te diet, n=6

40.1

9.4a

23a

Coturnix coturnix japonica 337 ♀, 62 d, laying, ad’te diet, n=6

36.3a

11.5

32

457 Coturnix coturnix japonica 337 ♀, 150 d, laying, ad’te diet, n=6

40.2

11.8

29

Coturnix coturnix jap.337 ♀, 150 d, Fe-def diet prev.30 d, n=6

29.6b

9.1b

33

Coturnix coturnix jap.337 ♀, 150 d, Fe-suppl diet prev.30 d, n=6

40.2b

11.8b

29

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 50 days, 2% ethanol x 1 wk, n=6

2.38a

34.0a

11.7a

143

49

34

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 50 days, 4% ethanol x 1 wk, n=6

3.63a

34.3a

12.2a

94

34

36

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 50 days, 8% ethanol x 1 wk, n=6

3.86a

38.5a

12.5a

100

35

32

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 50 days, 16% ethanol x 1 wk, n=6

4.00a

39.8a

13.1a

100

32

33

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 50 days, control x 1 wk, n=6

1.30

27.5

9.5

212

73

35

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 57 days, 2% ethanol x 2 wk, n=6

2.71a

36.5a

12.6a

135

46

35

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 57 days, 4% ethanol x 2 wk, n=6

3.67a

36.3a

13.2a

99

36

36

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 57 days, 8% ethanol x 2 wk, n=6

3.94a

39.0a

13.5a

99

34

35

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 57 days, 16% ethanol x 2 wk, n=6

40.3a

13.3a

33

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 57 days, control x 2wk, n=6

1.38

28.0

9.1

203

66

33

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 64 days, 2% ethanol x 3 wk, n=6

3.08a

36.8a

13.3a

119

43

36

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 64 days, 4% ethanol x 3 wk, n=6

3.83a

40.0a

13.7a

104

36

34

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 64 days, 8% ethanol x 3 wk, n=5

4.11a

41.3a

14.0a

100

34

34

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 64 days, 16% ethanol x 3 wk, n=5

4.20a

44.8a

14.0a

107

33

31

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 64 days, control x 3wk, n=6

1.46

28.3

8.8

194

60

31

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 71 days, 2% ethanol x 4 wk, n=6

2.88a

40.0a

13.6a

139

47

34

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 71 days, 4% ethanol x 4 wk, n=6

3.99a

42.0a

13.7a

105

34

33

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 71 days, 8% ethanol x 4 wk, n=6

4.17a

45.0a

14.0a

108

34

31

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 71 days, 16% ethanol x 4 wk, n=6

4.26a

46.8a

15.3a

110

36

33

Coturnix c. japonica 350, age 71 days, control x 4wk, n=6

1.47

30.2

8.9

205

61

29

458 Order Galliformes (Gallinaceous Birds, Game Birds)

Family Phasianidae

Genus Meleagris (gallopavo, common turkey)

Meleagris gallopavo silvestris 69, southeastern wild turkey, 4 mo, wild, reared in captivity, n=48

36.7

Meleagris gallopavo 123, domestic turkey, adult, n=14

11.0 × 5.8

Meleagris gallopavo 229, 3 varieties, 0–3 wk old, n=10

2.05

35.8

6.0

175

29

17

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 3–6 wk old, n=10

2.81

47.5

6.6

169

23

14

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 3–6 wk old, n=10

2.40

44.7

6.4

186

27

14

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 6–12 wk old, n=10

3.52

51.1

7.6

145

22

15

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 6–12 wk old, n=10

2.89

48.2

6.8

167

24

14

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 12–18 wk old, n=10

3.91

53.4

8.0

137

20

15

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 12–18 wk old, n=10

3.51

49.8

7.7

142

22

15

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 18–26 wk old, n=10

4.26

56.2

10.4

132

24

19

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 18–26 wk old, n=10

3.76

52.6

9.5

140

25

18

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 26–34 wk old, n=10

3.72

53.6

11.3

144

30

21

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 26–34 wk old, n=10

3.26

50.5

9.6

155

29

19

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 34–44 wk old, n=10

3.20

49.1

9.7

153

30

20

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 34–44 wk old, n=10

2.95

46.5

8.6

158

29

18

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, 44–50 wk old, n=10

2.94

45.5

9.4

155

32

21

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, 44–50 wk old, n=10

2.14

41.6

8.6

194

40

21

Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♂, 3 varieties, >50 wk old, n=10

2.64

41.9

7.0

159

27

17

459 Meleagris gallopavo 229 ♀, 3 varieties, >50 wk old, n=10

2.21

37.7

6.2

171

28

16

Meleagris gallopavo 230 ♂, 2 years old, winter, n=8

4.90*

35.3*

11.2*

72

23

32

Meleagris gallopavo 230 ♀, 2 years old, winter, n=8

3.27*

24.0*

7.3*

73

22

30

Meleagris gallopavo 230 ♂, 2 years old, summer, n=8

6.58

44.7*

12.7

68

19

28

Meleagris gallopavo 230 ♀, 2 years old, summer, n=8

5.63

36.7*

10.7

65

19

29

Small white beltsville turkey241, 4 wk old, n= 10♂ & 10♀

2.97

32.3

11.0

107

36

34

Small white beltsville turkey241, 8 wk old, n= 10♂ & 10♀

3.21

34.2

12.1

107

37

35

Small white beltsville turkey241, 12 wk old, n= 10♂ & 10♀

3.51

35.5

12.5

99

36

35

Small white beltsville turkey241, 16 wk old, n= 10♂ & 10♀

3.49

38.0

12.8

109

33

35

Small white beltsville turkey241, 20 wk old, n= 10♂ & 10♀

4.07

40.1

13.2

99

33

33

Small white beltsville turkey241, 24 wk old, n= 10♂ & 10♀

4.66

41.4

13.7

96

31

33

Beltsville white turkey66, midget/small white turkey breed

Beltsville white turkey66, 0.5 wk old, laboratory conditions, n=3

3.13

Beltsville white turkey66, 4 wk old, laboratory conditions, n=3

2.54

Beltsville white turkey66, 8 wk old, field conditions, n=23

2.67

Beltsville white turkey66 ♂, adult, field conditions, n=9

2.65

Beltsville white turkey66 ♀, adult, laying, field conditions, n=12

2.48

Broad-breasted bronze turkey88 ♀, (Meleagris gallopavo), 16 mo, n=27–57

33.0

10.5

32

Turkey211, domestic, normal, 3 months old, n=18

2.60

Turkey211, Salmonella pullorum-injected, 3 months old, n=9

<2.00

Hybrid XK turkey125 ♂ & ♀ age 1 day, n=10

1.82

34.0

8.4

185

47

25

Hybrid XK turkey125 ♀, age 35 days, n=10

2.54

34.0

9.8

137

40

29

Hybrid XK turkey125 ♂, age 94 days, n=10

2.29

35.0

10.0

155

44

29

Hybrid XK turkey125 ♀, age 94 days, n=10

2.31

35.0

9.9

151

43

28

460 Order Galliformes (Gallinaceous Birds, Game Birds)

Family Phasianidae

Hybrid XK turkey125 ♂, age 108 days, n=10

2.53

36.0

10.6

144

42

29

White Holland turkey181 ♀, Meleagris gallopavo sp., breeder hens, age lyr, n=30

35.9

White England turkey205 ♂, 9 months old, in Nigeria, n=15

2.57*

39.5

13.0

157

52

33

White England turkey205 ♀, 9 months old, in Nigeria, n=25

2.16*

38.5

11.7

177

54

30

White England turkey232, ♂ & ♀, 6-8 wk old, in Nigeria, n=14

2.31

34.5a

10.4a

148

45

30

White England turkey232, ♂ & ♀, 20–22 wk old, in Nigeria, n=28

2.48

37.6a

11.5a

156

47

31

White England turkey232 ♂, 20–22 weeks old, in Nigeria, n=14

2.59

38.7*

12.3*

150

48

32

White England turkey232 ♀, 20–22 weeks old, in Nigeria, n=25

2.38

36.4*

10.7*

161

47

30

Turkey poults243, age 11-38 days, n=96

2.81

35.6

9.6

129

34

27

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 1 day, n=20

2.22

33.7

10.9

153

49

32

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 2 days, n=20

2.26

31.9

9.9

142

44

31

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 3 days, n=20

2.04

31.9

9.6

156

46

29

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 4 days, n=20

2.12

33.2

9.9

158

47

30

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 5 days, n=20

2.15

34.8

9.7

164

46

28

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 6 days, n=20

2.17

33.9

9.8

157

45

29

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 7 days, n=20

2.23

32.8

9.6

144

43

29

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 8 days, n=20

2.33

34.8

9.8

151

42

28

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 9 days, n=20

2.45

34.1

9.9

143

41

30

Turkey poults313 ♂, Nicholas white large, age 10 days, n=20

2.20

34.7

9.6

158

44

28

461Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 1 day, n=20

2.05

33.9

10.4

167

51

31

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 2 days, n=20

2.09

33.3

10.3

160

49

31

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 3 days, n=20

2.05

32.1

9.7

158

47

30

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 4 days, n=20

2.14

32.4

9.8

152

46

30

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 5 days, n=20

2.17

31.5

9.6

146

44

30

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 6 days, n=20

2.21

31.3

9.8

142

44

31

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 7 days, n=20

2.25

32.9

9.9

147

44

30

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 8 days, n=20

2.29

32.8

9.6

144

42

29

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 9 days, n=20

2.42

34.9

10.2

145

42

29

Turkey poults313 ♀, Nicholas white large, age 10 days, n=20

2.43

34.9

9.6

145

40

28

Turkey poults173 ♀, Nicholas white large, n=24

1.88

30.8*

9.1*

164*

43*

30*

Turkey poults173 ♀, Nicholas white large, aflatoxin diet, n=24

1.70

25.5*

6.8*

150*

35*

25*

Large white turkey embryo330, incubation day 24, n=20

1.95d

33.7 b

9.4c

173a

48a

28b

Large white turkey embryo330, incubation day 25, n=20

2.14c

37.4a

9.9c

175a

46b

27c

Large white turkey embryo330, incubation day 26, n=20

2.28b

36.0a

10.2b

158b

45c

29b

Large white turkey embryo330, incubation day 27, n=20

2.35a

36.2a

10.7b

154b

46bc

29b

Large white turkey embryo330, incubation day 28, n=20

2.27b

33.6b

11.1a

148c

49a

34a

Pavo cristatus 23,123, Indian or common peafowl, peacock, adult, age 2–3 yr, captive, n=10

2.07

36.9

12.0

12.6 × 7.0

178

58

33

Pavo cristatus 236 ♂, adult, in Nigeria, n=5

2.09

34.4

11.7

166

57

34

Pavo cristatus 236 ♀, adult, in Nigeria, n=4

2.07

34.0

11.7

168

58

34

Genus Gallus (jungle fowl)

Gallus domesticus 62 (Gallus g.domesticus) chicken, n=10♂, 10♀

2.99

43.3

13.5

12.5 × 7.5

127

40

33

Gallus gallus bankiva 23, bankiva, cochin-chinese red junglefowl, adult, age 2–3yr, captive, n=10

2.63

36.2

12.2

10.7 × 7.1

137

46

34

462 Order Galliformes (Gallinaceous Birds, Game Birds)

Family Phasianidae

Gallus gallus bankiva 123, red junglefowl, adult, n=10

10.7 × 7.1

Gallus gallus domesticus 91 ♀, New Hampshire strain, n=32

2.81

33.6

8.8

120

31

26

Gallus domesticus 216 ♂, domestic chickens in Nigeria, n=10

2.17

36.5*

12.9*

169*

60*

36*

Gallus domesticus 216 ♀, domestic chickens in Nigeria, n=10

2.13

30.6*

9.7*

145*

46*

32*

Gallus domesticus 237 ♂, adult, domestic, in Nigeria, n=13

2.55

35.8*

11.3*

143

44

32

Gallus domesticus 237 ♀, adult, domestic, in Nigeria, n=13

2.42

33.4*

9.8*

137

41

29

Gallus domesticus 239 ♀, adult, domestic, in Nigeria, n=7

2.15

30.2

6.3

141

29

21

Gallus domesticus 245 ♀, domestic, in Nigeria, n=9

2.69

35.0a

11.7a

136

46

34

Hubbard fowl245 ♀, domestic, in Nigeria, n=9

2.42

31.8a

10.6a

132

44

33

Domestic chicken298, in Zimbabwe, n=20

2.49

35.9

16.4

134

66

46

Anak 2000 broiler246, adult, in Nigeria, n=12

2.43

28.3

10.2

117

42

36

Achromatic-anemic fowl line257, 8–12 weeks old, n=29

1.99a

26.1a

7.4a

10.9a X 6.0

133a

37

28

Normal control fowl257, 8–12 weeks old, n=32

2.59a

31.0a

8.6a

10.0a X 6.0

120a

33

28

Athens-Canadian chicks327, 7–42 days of life @8°C, n=25

2.95

28.7

97a.

Athens-Canadian chicks327, 7–42 days of life @30°C, n=25

2.78

25.6

92a

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, white leghorn, 36 wk old, baseline, prior to initiating low Fe diet, =14

29.2

9.5

33

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, white leghorn, 36 wk, baseline, prior to initiatinng adequate Fe-supplemented diet, n=15

29.6

9.7

33

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above, and low Fe x 2wk, n=14

29.6

9.3a

31

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above, and high Fe x 2wk, n=15

31.8

10.1a

31

463 Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above and low Fe x 4wk, n=14

28.2a

7.8a

28

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above, and high Fe x 4wk, n=15

32.5a

10.3a

31

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above and low Fe x 7wk, n=14

27.1a

6.2a

27

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above, and high Fe x 7wk, n=15

31.4a

9.2a

29

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above and low Fe x 10wk, n=14

25.5a

6.9a

27

Gallus domesticus 176 ♀, as above, and high Fe x 10wk, n=15

32.5a

10.5a

29

Domestic chicken326 ♀, age 6 mo, preinfection, n=30

2.70

35.9

12.7

133

47

35

Domestic chicken326 ♀, S. gallinarum-infected, at death, n=30

0.94

17.8

6.7

189

71

38

White leghorn341 ♀, non-laying adult, age 20 mo, n=100

2.78a

White leghorn341 ♀, age 1–2 days old, n=47

2.48a

White leghorn92, 123 ♂, non-dwarf strain, adult, 16 mo, n=±10

3.31*

45.6*

13.9

10.3 X 6.3*

138

42

31

White leghorn92, 123 ♀, non-dwarf adult, age 16 mo, n=±10

2.87*

23.4*

9.2

10.3 X 6.3*

82

32

39

White leghorn92 ♂, dwarf strain, young, age 8 mo, n=±10

3.14

44.9

12.2

143

39

27

White leghorn92 ♀, dwarf strain, young, age 6 mo, n=±10

2.59

28.3

9.4

109

36

33

White leghorn92 ♀, dwarf strain, adult, age 16 mo, n=±10

2.93

27.7

8.5

95

29

31

White rock342, age 1 wk

2.70

22.5

7.1

83

26

32

White rock342, age 2 wk

2.64

23.6

7.5

89

28

32

White rock342, age 3 wk

2.22

24.5

8.8

110

40

36

White rock342, age 4 wk

2.22

23.8

7.4

107

33

31