Project capital costs can be divided into two broad categories: (1) construction costs (also referred to as “direct capital costs” or “hard project costs”) and (2) other project-related capital costs (engineering, development, financing, and contingencies), which are also known as “indirect capital costs” or “soft project costs”. A typical breakdown of the direct and indirect capital costs of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination projects is presented in Tables 4.1 and 4.2, respectively.