The world, today, is entering in to a new era: an era of low carbon emission with a desired target of Zero Carbon Future. Hydro power is recognized as clean, green and mature technology. Small hydro power has a unique feature which is economically feasible and has minimum impact on environment.

This chapter provides an idea as to how small hydro plants can contribute to solving the problem of rural electrification, improving living standards, economic development and reduction of carbon emission. Upon increasing demand of energy accompanied by ecological and environmental problems, it teaches about how to tackle the critical need to adjust energy mix, improve energy efficiency and ensure energy security.

This chapter narrates the effective planning of a small/major hydro plant by conducting various surveys which includes careful investigation of topographical, geotechnical, hydrological, socio economic and environmental surveys, and how to select the type of scheme based on the feasibility report of a particular site. Readers through this chapter will have guidelines for making an estimate on the way to preparation of a budget for the selected site along with various cost components of hydropower.