Basic terminology for noise and vibration measurement is described and defined together with a description of the anatomy and function of the ear. The decibel is defined together with the basic terminology used in frequency analysis and noise exposure assessment metrics such as the noise dose. Ear protection and other methods of protecting employees from high exposure are described (noise insulation and noise attenuation). The effects of noise on performance and health are discussed and the evidence for the cost effectiveness of hearing protection programs is described. The main HFE requirements for designing the auditory environment, including auditory alarms, are summarized: operators should not be exposed to workplace noise likely to cause noise-induced hearing loss according to ISO 1999:2013 or a national equivalent standard; selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) for those exposed to excessive noise must be made in consultation with operators and include an analysis of the context of use; whole body vibration (WBV) exposure must be within safe limits; hand–arm vibration exposure should be minimized; and ambient noise should not interfere with task performance.