Basic seismic concepts are presented with an emphasis on the establishment of rock properties. The cross-hole seismic method is then explained in detail as this approach can provide unique value of formation compressibility (bulk modulus), Poisson’s Ratio and the shear modulus – all important in understanding the response of a formation to stress changes.

Seismic refraction methods are described with worked examples of refraction data in shallow investigation of unconsolidated deposits.