Hypersplenism is splenomegaly plus decreased numbers of circulating blood elements (anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia). This is different from “work hyper­ trophy,” where the spleen enlarges due to constant exposure of the spleens phagocytic mechanism to abnormal cells. Hypersplenism leads to a decreased number of normal cells. If the bone marrow cannot compensate, the patient becomes anemic.