All civil engineering structures are founded directly or indirectly on ground soil; therefore, the stability of both super-and subsurface structures hinges on the stability of ground soil, which is greatly influenced by local environments, as illustrated in Figure 12.1. In general, all structural design is based on loads; however, design criteria based on load factor alone do not give the whole picture and neglect the other important factor that controls the overall stability of all civil engineering structures-the environmental factor design criteria. At present, the load factor design criteria are generally accepted for most civil engineering structural designs including ground improvement systems and foundations. Civil engineering design of structures is interdisciplinary in nature and needs the cooperation of all related fields in order to provide a safe and economical structural system. A brief review of this commonly used load factor concept is presented. In addition, the proposed load-environmental factor design criteria are also discussed and compared.