Clinical medicine involves the provider’s ability to accurately diagnose a case and provides the treatment needed to be disease-free. The understanding of subclinical and clinical conditions allows for a better characterization and classification of those with the disease relative to those without in the population of interest. The potentials in meeting these demands in clinical medicine and public health transcend the understanding of symptoms and signs of the disease to the application of screening and diagnostic test, with the intent to correctly classify those with the disease (test sensitivity) and accurately rule out those without the disease as disease-free (test specificity).