Biomedical and clinical research remain tools to understanding disease pathways, treatment modalities, and outcomes of care. While knowledge of biomedical sciences and clinical medicine is significant for advances in this field, the generation of such knowledge requires solid and reliable design processes as well as adequate statistical techniques. Biomedical and clinical research is conducted primarily to enhance therapeutics, implying the intent to improve patients’ care. The application of this concept in biomedical sciences, public health, and clinical medicine signaled a departure from nihilism, which claimed that disease improved without therapy. The scientific medical discoveries on pellagra, diabetes mellitus, and antibiotics like penicillin and sulfonamide provide reliable data on medicinal benefits in therapeutics. Today, with biomedical and clinical research, clinical investigators applying reliable and valid research methodologies can demonstrate the efficacy and effectiveness of agents and devices, competing therapies, combination treatments, comparative effectiveness, and diagnostic and screening criteria for most diseases.