The technologically inspired capability of instrumenting and interconnecting computationally powerful as well as resource-constrained devices (physical, mechanical, electrical, and electronics) with one another in the vicinity as well as with cloud-hosted software applications and data sources over any network is to enable the devices to exhibit a kind of shrewdness in their operations and outputs. Not only everyday instruments, machines, appliances, wares, utensils, equipment, and so on but also common, cheap, and casual articles such as cots, chairs, cups, tables, pipes, doors, sofas, and windows in our personal, professional, and social environments are being technically tuned and turned to exhibit hitherto unforeseen smart behavior and to join in the mainstream computing. Further, the environments wherein those embedded yet empowered devices are being deployed in large numbers ultimately become smart in their contributions for the occupants and owners of the environment.

These transitions are being enabled through the systematic leverage of hugely powerful edge technologies such as disposable and diminutive sensors, actuators, chips, controllers, codes, stickers, pads, tags, labels, speck, and smart dust. That is, the aura and era of the Internet of things (IoT) have started to beckon and dawn on us powerfully with the overwhelming use of promising, proven, and potential technologies. Our living, working, social, edutainment, and entertainment places are being systematically decked and demonstrated to be lively and lovely. The methodical adoption and adaptation of scores of digitization and distribution technologies are to bring a series of disruptions and transformations in our lives. The much-anticipated digital living, economy, and the world are bound to see the light at the end of the long tunnel.

The capabilities such as connectivity, networking, communication, integration, and orchestration of digital elements, devices, and IT systems are imperative to seamlessly 86share their unique capabilities and capacities. In this chapter, we are extensively covering the connectivity technologies, topologies and tools, and their contributions for setting up and sustaining smarter environments (smarter homes, hospitals, hotels, etc.), and ultimately the smarter planet.