The previous chapter was concerned with the analysis of various types of spatial data through the construction and comparison of distance matrices. This chapter still involves spatial data. However, the concern is with approaches that do not explicitly involve distance matrices. No attempt will be made here to provide a comprehensive review of the large area of statistics that is concerned with spatial data. Instead, a few particular situations will be used to illustrate the potential for computer-intensive methods in this area. Those interested in more information should consult a specialist text, such as that of Diggle (2003), Grieg-Smith (1983), Ripley (1981), Haining (1990), or Kitanidis (1997).